Literature Review Rough Draft

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A rough draft response to the literature review promp. Please see the attachments to know what exactly to wright. My major is Mechanical Engenering

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Literature Review Conventions Adapted from Feak and Swales’ Telling a Research Story: Writing a Literature Review Literature Review Introductions • “In the [introduction], you may want to begin with a rather general description of your topic, highlight its importance by suggesting it is interesting, problematic, or otherwise relevant. You may then try to establish that a review of literature is valuable in understanding important aspects of your research area. At the end of your introduction, you clarify the scope and overall organization of the review” (Feak & Swales, 2009, p. 23). • “One way to begin is by making a generalization, discussing some accepted knowledge of the field, or presenting information that is widely known” (Feak & Swales, 2009, p. 23). Supporting Paragraphs Supporting paragraphs should • Explain each source’s claims about the topic • Summarize any field research reported in each source • Summarize any other evidence discussed in each source • use integral or non-integral citations consistently • explain how the sources reviewed relate to each other • be organized to illustrate relationships between sources Supporting Organization • Sources may be reviewed in a source-by-source pattern (date of publication, perspective on topic, area of specialization, etc.). • Information from multiple sources may also be organized around thematic points (problem/solution, points of agreement/disagreement, shared points of chronology, etc). • Whether the literature review is organized thematically or source-bysource, the chronology of field research or other data presented in each source should be clear to readers. Conclusions The conclusion should • Point out information from the review that is new or useful • Explain how that information brings up a research question or hypothesis • That is related to your undergraduate work • That can be investigated through field research on our campus The conclusion should not • Merely ‘recap’ of your supporting points • Bring up information from your sources that hasn’t already been discussed in your support Integral Citations Integral citations are typically taught in writing courses. Sentences with integral citations bring up the names of authors/researchers cited and may be more appropriate for quotations; genres that rely heavily on outside references; writing in humanities and social science fields. Examples: • Muehlbach and Walsh (1995) examined the effects of caffeine administered during a night-shift and its effects on subsequent daytime sleep. [APA] • Stedman writes, “It helps me to remember that the conventions of writing have a fundamentally rhetorical nature” (244). [MLA] Non-Integral Citations Sentences with “non-integral” or “research prominent citations” avoid direct statements about authors/researchers. These citations may be appropriate for report writing; paraphrase that comes after an initial, integral reference; science or technical writing. APA Examples: • Research indicates that near to 50 percent of night-shift workers extend their normal hours of wakefulness from the average 16 to 24h on the first night-shift of their schedule (Akerstedt, 1995). • Investigations of genre have shown that how writers use genre conventions has a significant impact on the outcome of their work (Swales, 1990; Devitt, 2004). Verb Tense and Citations (Present Tense) Typically, “verbs that have to do with argument, claims, statements, and suggestions (e.g. argue, suggest, claim, or maintain) tend to be used in the present (Charles, 2006).” Present tense verbs also often refer to “generally accepted knowledge of the field” or topic. • Stedman explains that when texts do not conform to readers’ expectations, those readers may become as frustrated as drivers dealing with unruly traffic (242). • The scarcity of known petroleum reserves makes renewable energy resources increasingly attractive. Verb Tense and Citations (Past Tense) “Past tense is more likely to be chosen for verbs related with finding or showing (e.g. found, identified, revealed, or indicated) (Charles, 2006).” Past tense is often used to reference authors’ research activities described in a source. • Arslan (2007) investigated the performance characteristics of biodiesel as a diesel engine fuel. • Ambady et al. (2001) found that stereotypes about gender and ethnicity can impact the performance of elementary school students. Verb Tense and Citations (Present Perfect) Present perfect tense uses a present form of “to have” as a helping verb along with a past tense form of an action or linking verb. Present perfect tense is used to make a general reference to a common area of research in multiple sources. • Investigations of genre have shown that how writers use genre conventions has a significant impact on the outcome of their work (Swales, 1990; Devitt, 2004). ENGLISH 109W Literature Review Background: Reviewing scholarly sources about writing in the disciplines is one way to become informed about academic writing contexts that you may encounter during upper-division coursework. To develop knowledge of disciplinary writing contexts relevant to your undergraduate work, this assignment asks you to review journal articles about an undergraduate writing issue in one academic field or in several related fields. Upon completion, your review should give undergraduate readers an insider’s view of scholarly discussion about a specific undergraduate writing issue and should conclude with a hypothesis or question that you would like to investigate through field research at Sacramento State. Prompt: What related claims do peer-reviewed articles make about an important question or problem regarding undergraduate writing in your academic field or in related fields? Introduce a relevant question or problem addressed in 3 or 4 journal articles, explain the arguments those articles make about the issue, and discuss how your review brought up a hypothesis or question about an undergraduate writing context on our campus. Text Features • • • • • • • • Introduce the question or problem to be discussed in your review Explain how that issue relates to writing in one or more academic fields Explain claims three secondary sources make about that issue; discuss o the purpose of each source o any field research reported in each source o evidence supporting each source’s claim(s) Include sources that directly address undergraduate writing in the disciplines Organize your supporting paragraphs to reflect how the articles are related Summarize, paraphrase, and/or quote each article to support your review Discuss a closing question or insight that relates the articles reviewed to an undergraduate writing context on our campus Use an appropriate citation style Process Steps • • • • • • Browse sources that address writing issues relevant to your undergraduate work Select one or more sources that discuss intriguing questions or problems Read the initial source(s) and locate additional related sources Choose an appropriate citation style Focus a rough draft on explaining three articles Polish your draft based on peer and instructor feedback Due Dates • • 4- to 5-page rough draft due 10/23 5- to 6-page polished draft due 11/8 ENGLISH 109W Sample Literature Review Literature Review of Reflective Writing in Art & Design Although Art and Design are both considered forms of visual. communications, writing is an imperative skill to understand in the discipline. Upon entering the professional world, some students struggle to adapt into their work setting where they are expected to have a refined level of prowess as a critical writer/thinker. Superficial education in college is a common culprit for Art and Design students’ abilities to perform well in writing. A particular issue in undergraduate Art and Design writing is weak critical and reflective writing for the student’s creative process. The creative process is a documentation of a project where students reflect on their work through connections, take notes on peer feedback, and explain reasoning behind the decisions made. The problem of weak critical and reflective writing emerge as students see this documentation as tedious and busywork. As many experts look for ways to combat this student mindset, many have published articles on how they’ve adapted their course and classroom to integrate and improve writing in creative studio classes. Four specific articles expound on the issues of critical writing in creative disciplines and how some professors are adapting their courses to fix the issues. The articles will be analyzed in a problem/solution manner as some articles have solutions to the issue. By improving the level of writing done by students in creative disciplines, they will be able to produce work that is done with intention and delve beyond the superficiality of art and design. Ho Lan Helena Wong analyzes the role of critiques in her article “Critique: A Communicative Event in Design Education” published in the journal Visual Language 45.3. Wong defines a critique as “a communicative and sociable event in which student present their design and critics provide feedback.... On how to improve the project from one stage to the next” (Wong 224). Critiques in design studio classes are aimed to “help students develop and evaluate their technical, aesthetic, written and verbal skills” and help students develop a strong sense of critical analysis (Wong 223). Wong conducts a research study interviewing students and professors on what makes for an effective critique and identifying issues that hinder a productive and informative class critique. In her data are responses from 10 faculty members and 11 third year students from across 2 different design disciplines at the School of Design in The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Students provided answers regarding how they define a critique and what makes for an effective critique. Two major issues Wong found in class critiques were Student Participation and the Sharing of Perspective. In regards to student participation, one student answered, “Another time [of bad critique] is my lack of preparation. I’m not even familiar with the topic I need to present, and when I have to answer the questions, I cannot answer them at all” (Wong 239). Another student answered similarly stating “It depends how much time you have for preparing your presentation” (Wong 239). Students are suggesting that given the lack of time to prepare for critiques, students will often be unprepared when giving their presentation, unable to answer questions the critics have about their work. The use of writing to help prepare students for critiques is not mentioned in Wong’s article but a second article by Michael Fowler goes into great detail on how he restructured his studio coursework to improve critiques. Wong also identifies the sharing of perspectives as a common issue among classwide critiques. Most of the interviewed student stated that they rarely gave or received comments, criticism or feedback during critiques. This issue hinders the proper development in critical thinking in design education that should be addressed by the faculty. In many cases, writing assignments can be utilized to change the dynamics of the class and the critique. Michael Fowler’s article, “Writing-Intensive Approaches in a Typographic Design Studio Class: Using Writing as a Tool toward More Intentional Design” published in Across the Disciplines: A journal of Language, Learning, and Academic Writing, discusses the various techniques he used writing in his studio classes to improve the quality of class critiques. Fowler integrated reflective writing into his design studio class to help prepare students for oral presentations of their designs. Fowler states, that by making writing an integral concept in design courses, writing will help students make deliberate design decisions, explain cultural and historical connections, and produce effective layouts for lengthy narratives. A list of questions would be written out for the students to answer such as what tone they were aiming for and why the typefaces they chose makes the design more effective (Fowler). Fowler’s goal for the reflective writing was to prevent a problem identified by Wong; students often being unprepared to talk 3 about their design decisions during a critique. Fowler found that by implementing reflective writing into his course, students were often less likely to say :What do you want me to say?” In one of Fowler’s two-dimensional design classes, students were expected to draft a formal analysis to help them examine artwork more critically by observing the artist’s choices and intentions. By writing the analysis, students were able to present their choice of artwork more in depth, not only helping the presenter learn more, but providing the student audience a critical insight on how their peers interpret artwork (Fowler). Through the sharing of student perspectives, Fowler’s written critical analysis contributes to what Wong found to be part of a good critique. Fowler was able to draw conclusions linking the connection between his writing assignments and the students’ increased ability to make connections between design choices, draw new contextual inspiration from cultural and historic influences and allow an opportunity for students to think more complexly. Lastly, Fowler includes a task requiring students to layout their analysis paper in a way to emphasize the content of the paper. For example, one of his students wrote about art from the ancient Egyptian culture and mocked up his paper on a papyrus textured scroll. By combining writing’s previous influences on the student’s ability to deliberate and make historical connections, the student was able to turn in a final paper that went beyond the written content and submitted his paper in the form of convincing historical context. As Wong identifies many issues found from the lack of required writing in art and design disciplines, Fowler was able to address many solutions to help improve the students’ weaknesses. Jillian Coorey and Gretchen Caldwell Rinnert research six different methods aimed to promote writing in the design discipline. Their goal is to break the tendency of design education “[focusing] on artifact creation, and [neglecting] reading and writing components in studio classrooms” (Coorey and Rinnert). Coorey and Rinnert find that undergraduate design programs undervalue writing and the importance of written research projects. Project documentation blogs were one method studied by Coorey and Rinnert. This was a reflective opportunity for students to document their design decisions, inspiration and peer feedback. It was commonly found that higher level students participated more on the documentation blogs as students learned over time the importance of reflective writing to improve design decisions. A second method 4 Coorey and Rinnert studied was a peer analysis style critique. Giving peers several days to analyze and write a 1-2 page assessment allowed for deeper connections to be made and more thoughtful feedback in terms of design decisions. A survey was given to the students in order to evaluate the integration of critical writing strategies. Coorey and Rinnert found that nearly all respondents plan to use writing when developing design briefs. What came as a surprise to Coorey and Rinnert was that many students “do not foresee using writing strategies in their professional career” (40). To combat that belief, Coorey and Rinnert plan to integrate more practice of professional writing in the design discipline such as design briefs and contracts. Similar to Fowler, Coorey and Rinnert also found that practice of critical writing for critiques improved the students’ abilities to be more mindful of in-depth explanations. Both articles also suggest the that writing for design students is imperative in order to prepare them for the professional world. Not only does critical writing improve the execution of the design process, but helps improve the ability to defend the creative choices made. The three articles all agree that writing in design education is often overlooked and undervalued. Through first hand integration and methodology research, Fowler and Coorey and Rinnert battle the problems identified by Wong. Many other articles identify similar writing issues in the broad discipline of design, and aim towards solutions to improve critical thinking and reflection. This overarching problem commonly found in design education is an interesting topic to be explored in Sacramento State’s own Graphic Design program. Observing and researching the techniques and strategies of design professors use to integrate writing into their coursework will help determine if Sacramento State follows the principles of creating well rounded design students prepared for the professional world of communication and critical thinking. 5 Work Cited Coorey, Jillian, and Gretchen Rinnert. “Critical Writing Strategies to Improve Class Critiques.” Visible Language , vol. 47, no. 3, 2013, pp. 30–51. Fowler, Michael. (2015, December 28). Writing-intensive approaches in a typographic design studio class: Using writing as a tool toward more intentional design [Special issue on the WAC, WID, and the performing and visual arts]. Across the Disciplines, 12(4). Wong, H. (2011). Critique: A Communicative Event in Design Education. Visible Language., 45(3), 221. ...
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School: Rice University

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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW ROUGH DRAFT

Literature Review Rough Draft
Student’s name
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LITERATURE REVIEW ROUGH DRAFT

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Literature Review Rough Draft
Mechanical engineering is a technical course that involves the application of skills in
dealing with machinery to aid in processes. Mainly, mechanical engineering undergraduate
students spend most their curriculum time dealing with practical scenarios such as going to the
lab and doing projects. The truth is that these students are not given enough time and training
regarding academic writing in their fields. The professors in this fields spend much of their time
teaching them how to work with machines and forego useful skills such as communication skills
through academic writing. Recent research has even revealed that most engineering students do
not have the competence to come up with a quality academic report but rather specialize in
carrying out the project itself (Moore & Morton, 2017). This literature review will examine the
incompetence of engineering students in academic writing and the factors that lead to it.
Many undergraduate students in engineering admit that their course does not require
much writing or reading assignment as much of their work is done in the workshop and fields.
The faculty of this field centralizes in making sure the students specialize in dealing with
machinery which is the core function of the course. However, this leads to the neglecting of
important skills such as writing and communication skills. It is a requirement that all
undergraduate stude...

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