Essay 2 Question

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Question Description

DUE OCTOBER 24, 2018 AT 11:59 PM

Answer the following question as completely as possible. Be sure you have answered all parts of the essay and have thoroughly explained your answers by telling how and why. Be sure you include all relevant dates and names. Use specific examples from your textbook and the class presentations to support your answers. Your essay should be double-spaced, must be uploaded as a .doc or .docx file type (i.e. a Microsoft Word document), and will be evaluated using Turn It In for any instances of plagiarism. Also, be sure you proof-read your essay for clarity, typos, and grammar errors.

Essay Question:

Trace the origins and development of Islam from the 7th century onward. Who was the founder of the religion and when was it founded? What were the basic beliefs of Muslims? What practices were required of Muslims? How did Muslims spread Islam? Who were the different groups within Islam and how did they differ from each other? How did governments support and promote different sects of Islam? How did the beliefs of these sects support rulers or cause other Muslims to rebel? How were non-Muslims treated by Islamic governments and rulers? Describe the organization and features of at least two Islamic governments that were discussed in Unit 2.

Be sure you are only discussing the history of this religion during the period of time covered by the material in Unit 2, and not beyond this time. Also, be sure you are using factual historical information from your textbook and class presentations to discuss Islam, and not incorporating information from other sources, such as religious books, websites, current events, and from your personal experience, as these are not history and outside of the time period asked in this question. TEXTBOOK: Traditions Encounters A Global Perspective on the Past FILES ATTACH BELOW IS PRESENTATIONS FROM UNIT 2!

DUE OCT. 24 AT 11:59 PM/ WORTH 50 POINTS TOTAL

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The Rise and Expansion of Rome Key Terms & Ideas • Founding of Rome • Development of Roman culture • Twelve Tables • Punic Wars • Populares • Optimates • Consul • First Triumvirate • Pompey • Julius Caesar • • • • • • • • • Struggle of the Orders Second Triumvirate Augustus (Octavian) Pax Romana Principate Diocletian Tetrarchy Constantine Edict of Milan 2 The Rape of the Sabine Women, Nicolas Poussin (1637-1638) Legendary Story There was a shortage of women in Rome for Romulus (founder of Rome) & his men to marry. They tried to negotiate with a neighboring tribe, the Sabines, to marry their women, but the men of the tribe refused. Romulus held a large festival which kept the men away. They captured the Sabine women and persuaded them to marry Romulus’ men by promising them honors and property rights, which they did not have if they married Sabine men. The Sabine men attacked Rome and lost. The Sabines were eventually incorporated into Rome. 3 The Intervention of the Sabine Women, Jacques-Louis David (1799) 4 5 Roman Monarchy (753-509 BC) • 7 Legendary Kings – Rome founded by Romulus who was raised by a wolf with his twin brother Remus – Created the Senate to advise them • Senate, Incorporated the Conquered Romulus & Remus drink milk from their adopted mother, a wolf. – Unlike the Greeks who excluded conquered people from government • By 550 BC – Controlled Latium – 300 square miles around Rome, supported 30,00040,000 people • Geared to Expand – Rome was in the middle of Italy on trade routes through the Mediterranean Sea, controlled the river crossing to get between N & S Italy – fertile land to farm, open spaces to expand • Culture Influenced by Neighbors The Roman Senate An Etruscan dinner party with both men & women. – Borrowed gods, ethical values, poetry, architecture from Greeks in southern Italy – Borrowed ceremonial aspects, taking of the auspices (looking for signs of the gods’ will in the shapes of organs from ritually slaughtered animals), and women at dinner parties from Etruscans 6 From Monarchy to Republic (509-287 BC) • Motivation: Distrust of Monarchy – Romans felt that all sole rulers would eventually misuse their power & become tyrants • The story the Rape of Lucretia shows this – Lucretia was a Roman noblewoman who was very beautiful. He husband bragged about her one night while out drinking with friends. The king’s son heard this and when her husband was next out of town, he went to Lucretia’s home and tried to persuade her to leave her husband and marry him. She refused so he raped her. She killed herself after telling her husband what happened. Her husband and other outraged nobles overthrew the king after he refused to punish his son. • Republic’s Founder: Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC A Roman Senator The Twelve Tables displayed in Rome – One family could not gain power over all others • Struggle of the Orders: 200 years of struggle to establish how the Republic would work – Patricians (Elites) vs. Plebians (Other Citizens) • Few patricians had lots of power. Numerous Plebians went on strike to achieve equal treatment. – Twelve Tables (451-449 BC) new laws created to protect all Roman citizens, became a symbol of Roman commitment to justice • Foundational Offices: created to provide government – Cursus Honorum lower offices that (Quaestor, Aediles, Praetor) → 2 Consuls – Senate – Prestigious advisors 7 From Monarchy to Republic (509-287 BC) • Foundational Offices: created to provide government – All citizens served in the military for 10 years (from age 20-30) – Cursus Honorum lower offices that a man worked his way through to achieve high office • Quaestor – Financial administrator • Aediles – City manager, cared for streets, sewers, aqueducts, temples, markets • Praetor – Judge & military leader • 2 Consuls – elected each year, highest honor & highest office available to Roman men The Roman Senate – Senate – Prestigious advisors, did not make laws 8 Traditional Roman Values • Mos Maiorum – Way of the Ancestors – Old traditions were good, new ideas were bad and dangerous • Morality: – – – Uprightness: How you related to others Faithfulness: Keeping your obligations, no matter what Respect: For yourself, your family, and the gods • Patron-Client Relationship – Patron: man of higher status who provided benefits – Client: man of lower status, helped patron during political campaigns, gave loans & gifts for political & dowry expenses – Reciprocal personal obligation, More clients = higher status • Education = Successful Public Life – Boys: taught reading, fighting, literature, math, logic, music, public speaking – Girls: taught reading, music, literature, spinning, weaving, how to make interesting conversation at parties • Religion = Successful Public/Private Life – Gods protect the state’s safety/prosperity • Pontifex Maximus – “Head Priest” • Preserve Pax Deorum (Peace of the Gods) through Sacrifices, Festivals, Rituals – Preserve family’s well-being/traditions A • Spirits: Penates (Household) & Lares (Ancestral) Roman Ritual to • Worshiping them keeps your family healthy & wealthy the gods 9 10 The Roman Republic Roman Expansion (500-200 BC) • Why Expand: – Fear = Preemptive strikes to eliminate possible enemies – Ambition = Desire for wealth, successful Roman generals gained fame & a share of all money captured on campaign • This was enough to pull a family out of debt • Perks for the Conquered: – Roman citizenship, no taxes (provided military support instead), share in Rome’s successes • Colonies/Road System in Italy – Troops could march much faster to deal with trouble, merchants could travel easier with goods everywhere in Rome • Result: Large & Wealthy Rome – City had 1 million people by 50 BC 12 The Punic Wars (264-146 BC) • Carthage (Punica) was a large, wealthy rival • First Punic War (264-241 BC) – Rome won Sicily, established a new, profitable colony • Second Punic War (218-201 BC) – General Hannibal took his war elephants across the mountains into Italy, defeating Rome at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC) – Rome invades N. Africa in retaliation at the Battle of Zama (202 BC) – Rome took Spain from Carthage – Carthage had to destroy their navy, pay for all Rome’s war expenses, give up all other colonies • Third Punic War (149-146 BC) – Wealthy Romans manufactured war to protect the N. African olive & grain trade – After 3 years, Carthage was destroyed, all citizens were sold into slavery, & Rome decreed that no one could rebuild a city there 13 The Empire of Carthage (Punica) (c. 264 BC) 14 15 16 The Ruins of Carthage 17 18 The Stresses of War on Roman Society (133-44 BC) • Disrupted Agriculture System – Most soldiers were also farmers. They left to go to war, leaving wives or slaves in charge of the farm. Often they were not able to keep the farm and either lost it to debt or sold it to wealthy people in the area. – Landless farmers look to politicians for help • • Politicians promise them whatever they wanted to gain their support. Politicians value Personal Ambition over Public Service – Gracchi Brothers (133-120 BC) wanted the rich to give concessions to small farmers in order to make Rome stronger, rich didn’t want to • Tiberius Gracchi passed laws giving land to poor, rich thought he was taking over Rome so they murdered him Gracchi • Gaius Gracchi continued his brother’s reform, wanted to created Brothers courts to put corrupt on trial, Senate opposed the plan, killed his supporters & Servants • This created two parties in Roman politics: Optimates (traditional values, mostly rich people) vs. Populares (common people who want reforms) – Gaius Marius (157-86 BC), general who ended slave revolts and invasions, becoming famous • 6-time Consul (this was unheard of), Client Armies created (soldiers in the army were more loyal to him than to Rome) – Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 BC), famous for defeating foreign armies • He attacked Rome starting a 2-year Civil War • Proscription for all enemies (put them on the list so their property could be confiscated legally) • Senate appointed him Dictator out of fear Gaius Marius Lucius Cornelius Sulla 19 The Fall of the Republic • Gnaeus Pompeius “Pompey” Magnus (106-48) Pompey – Optimates (from noble family), a good general – Elected consul despite being younger than the minimum age and never having held office before • People compared him to Alexander the Great • First Triumvirate (60-53 BC) (rule by 3 men) – Romans feared Pompey’s power so they created the Triumvirate to create checks & balances – Political alliance (Pompey, Julius Caesar, & Crassus) Julius Caesar • Cemented through personal relationships, Pompey married Julius Caesar’s daughter, Julia – Only Caesar left standing • Pompey & Caesar fought a civil war (54-48 BC)for control of Rome after Julia died (Crassus died in 53 BC) • Pompey fled Rome when Caesar crossed the Rubicon, was finally defeated in 48 in Greece – Pompey then fled to Egypt where he was murdered by King Ptolemy XIII (who was a child) Crassus 20 Julius Caesar crossing the Rubicon River to Rome 21 with his army, symbolically entering Italy to defeat Pompey. Dictatorship of Julius Caesar (r. 48-44 BC) • Caesar invades Egypt to solidify his power, defeats Ptolemy XIII, puts the boy’s sister, Cleopatra, on the throne • Ruled like a king, but didn’t call himself king – Only rule by one man could stop the violence & civil wars but Romans didn’t trust kings • Popular with the people – Cancelled some debt – Built roads, bridges, & aqueducts • Rebuilt Carthage as a Roman trading city Cleopatra hid inside a rug to sneak in to Caesar’s office to meet (& seduce) him. Caesar is murdered in the Senate – Gave more foreigners citizenship & admitted non-Italians to the Senate – Pardoned his enemies instead of punishing them • March 15, 44 BC – Caesar assassinated by Senators – A small sect of Optimates felt he was too popular & would destroy Rome, so they killed him to “liberate” the empire from his tyrrany – There was no plan after his death, so 22 The Death of Caesar, Jean-Léon Gérôme (1867) 23 The Roman Empire The Coliseum in Rome 25 Rome & Civil War, 44-27 BC • Octavian (Caesar’s Grandnephew & heir) vs. Marc Antony (Caesar’s Friend, Commander in Caesar’s army) – Octavian demands consulship in 43 BC, gets it, forms the second triumvirate • Second Triumvirate (43-36 BC) – Protection Alliance: Octavian, Antony, M.A. Lepidus • Octavian vs. Anthony (& Cleopatra) for 17 years Octavian Anthony & Cleopatra – After Caesar’s death, Anthony becomes Cleopatra’s lover to gain control over Egypt. • Unfortunately, he’s married to Octavian’s sister. Octavian is not happy • Octavian gains support in Rome to eliminate Anthony by saying that Anthony wants to make Cleopatra (a foreigner) Queen of Rome – 31 BC – Battle of Actium (in NW Greece) – Octavian wins – 30 BC – Antony & Cleopatra flee to Egypt, commit suicide…Octavian conquers Egypt (This is the end of Ptolemies.) Battle of Actium Cleopatra kills herself by having a poisonous snake bite her. Lepidus 26 27 Augustus Caesar & the Pax Romana (27 BC-192 AD) • The Pax Romana was a 200 year period of social stability and prosperity in Rome which started with Octavian’s rule. • Octavian → takes the name Augustus (“Divinely Favored”) • Called his rule the Principate = This was actually a monarchy but disguised since Romans were so afraid of kings abusing their power. • • • • Called himself Princeps (First Citizen) = He had all the power of an Emperor The Senate still met, consuls were elected, but they had little power Created a professionalized army, stationed IN Rome • The army had set lengths of service. They were paid, earned benefits, & retirement packages. They were now loyal to Augustus and protected him from rebellions Communicating his new image: Used propaganda slogans (Father of his country) & coins to show his new status, Augustan Forum (2 BC) created as a practical gathering place for public rituals • The search for an heir: Augustus ruled 41 years (27 BC – 14 AD) Octavian, Augustus Caesar • • He had no son, but designated many relatives….who all died before him. In 4 AD, he adopted Tiberius (a famous general with the support of the Senate). Augustus’ coins The Augustan Forum 28 The Julio-Claudian Emperors, 14-68 AD • Tiberius (14-37 AD) – Long Reign Provided Stability – Emperor & Elite Compromise on the role of each • Emperor → Fill offices & make law/policy • Elite → Traditional rights & prestige – Made no effort to prepare successor • Gaius Caligula (37-41 AD) – No experience for the job…mentally unstable – Reportedly made his horse a senator & slept with his sister – Murdered by Praetorian Guard • Nero (54-68 AD) – No desire to rule…styled himself an actor/artist – His mother wanted him to be Emperor. He eventually had her killed for treason. – Ordered servant to murder him to avoid being publicly executed. 29 The Flavian Emperors, 69-96 AD • 68 AD – Year of the Four Emperors – Four men became emperor and were murdered in that year. • Vespasian (69-79 AD) – Restored order, spread the Imperial Cult (Emperor worshiped as a god) outside Italy • Titus (79-81 AD) – Constructed Coliseum • Domitian (81-96 AD) – Paranoia led him on a killing spree – Killed by his wife & court • The Five Good Emperors (96-180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius – Peace, prosperity, no civil war, no murder 30 31 Rome’s Final Years The Crisis of the Third Century AD •Rome’s propserity ended with the assassination of Commodius in 192 AD, ending the Pax Romana •Factors Contributing to Rome’s Problems •Army expanded to combat/foreign invasion • No new sources of money to pay them, though •Imperial fundraising caused problems & bankrupted the economy •Reemergence of client armies built by generals •Civil war infects Rome (again) •Natural disasters (earthquakes & plague) 33 Some of the foreign tribes invading the Roman Empire in the 3rd Century 34 35 Reorganizing the Empire, 284-324 AD The Tetrarchy •Diocletian (r. 284-305 AD) & the Dominate •Diocletian took power & had himself recognized as the Dominus (master) establishing the Dominate •His word was law, he called himself god & declared he was descended from the god Jupiter •Punishments for crimes were made more severe (usually cutting off limbs or horrible deaths) Diocletian Constantine •293 – Created the Tetrarchy: Empire divided into 4 districts •Appointed 3 “partners” to manage each section, created 4 new capital cities •305 – Leaves office •Constantine (r. 306-337 AD) •306-324 – Puts down rivals to take control of the Empire •324 – Splits Empire into East & West Roman Empire, Founds Constantinople (His “New Rome”) as his capital city Constantine 36 Reforming Roman Religious Culture •Diocletian (r. 284-305 AD) •Why all the unrest before his reign?...Gods are angry. All Romans need to perform the traditional rituals to make them happy again. •303 AD – Great Persecution vs. Christians: Christians expelled from government, property seized, churches stripped of anything valuable, executions of Christians •Constantine (r. 306-337 AD) •312 AD – Battle of Milvian Bridge (Outside Rome) •Constantine defeats rival (Maxentius)…credits Christianity Milvian Bridge A later drawing of the Battle, and the Chi Rho symbol. • Before the battle he had a vision telling him to put a Christian symbol on his soldiers’ sheild (XP, Chi Rho), he did and they won. He converted to Christianity just before he died. (His mom was a Christian.) •313 AD – Issues the Edict of Milan •Granted everyone in the Empire religious toleration, did not make Christianity the official religion of Rome •Returned property to those who had it taken in the Great Persecution 37 38 The Christianization of the Empire •Polytheism Persists •Pagans: Why is Christianity so great? • Jesus seen as a criminal who had failed to overthrow Rome, was friends with poor people & sinners • Roman gods had created a world empire •Making Christianity Official •391 AD – Theodosius officially adopts Christianity as state religion, gives offices & positions to Christians •Result: Pagans convert & soon there are more Christians than Pagans Emperor Theodosius 39 The Roman Empire around 300 AD 40 The Roman Empire’s Final Demise •By 400 AD… •Western Empire: unstable, weak, broke, regular foreign invasions •Eastern Empire: stable, strong, wealthy, secure borders •5th cent. Germanic Tribes Invade Italy, often •410 – Visigoths sack Rome •455 – Vandals sack Rome •476 – Romulus Augustulus (last Western Roman Emperor) deposed in a dispute over pay for soldiers •493 – Ostrogoths establish kingdom, Rome in the West is truly over 41 42 The Rise of Christianity and Early Christians 1 Key Terms & Ideas • • • • • • • • • • • Saul (Paul) of Tarsus Church Councils Bishops Heresy St. Anthony St. Benedict of Nursia Arianism Council of Nicaea Monasticism Ka’ba Muhammad • • • • • • • • • • Qur’an Five Pillars of Islam Hajj Hijra Sunni Shi’ite Al-Andalus Dhimmi Umayyad Dynasty Abbasid Dynasty 2 Various Portraits of Jesus of Nazareth 3 The travels of Paul of Tarsus throughout the Mediterranean 4 Jesus of Nazareth & the Setting for Christianity •Life of Jesus (c. 4 BC – c. 30 AD) basis for Christianity •Romans ruled Judea harshly, rebellion always possible Jesus of Nazareth •Jewish Apocalypticism •Antiochus IV (r. 175-164 BC) persecuted Jews, so they revolted • This was the birth of Apocalypticism Christian tombs in Judea A coin showing Antiochus IV •Jews believed that the current world was controlled by evil powers but God would soon send his Messiah (annointed one) to reveal his plan to end evil. •Messiah/Christ conquers evil. Evil doers would be punished & righteous would be rewarded. 5 The Mission of Paul of Tarsus (c. 10-c. 65AD) Paul converts to following Jesus • Saul (Paul) was a Jew opposed to the idea of Jesus as a messiah. While traveling, he had a vision which inspired him to become a follower of Jesus. • To become righteous & attain salvation, people must accept 2 ideas: – Jesus is divine – Jesus’ crucifixion was the ultimate sacrifice for the sins of humanity. St. Paul of Tarsus Paul preaching to a crowd in a city • After 46 AD, Paul traveled around Syria, Asia Minor, & Greece preaching to Jews & Gentiles (non-Jews). – Taught in cities. Congregations were often formed after he left. • Paul vs. Jews – Paul’s groups did not require their members to keep all Jewish laws. – Other of Jesus’ followers (including the apostles) saw this as wrong. Jesus was a Jew, all of his first followers were Jews, so all people who want to follow him should convert and become Jews. – Jews revolted in Jerusalem 66-70AD. • Paul’s groups claimed to not be Jews in order to distance themselves from rebels. 6 Christianity’s Growth (1st & 2nd Cents. AD) Christian martyrs dying •New religion baffled & irritated Romans •It was new, and Romans felt that old traditional things were always better •Afraid that tolerating them would cause gods’ anger •Christians worshiped a criminal (Jesus executed as a criminal), practiced cannibalism (Commun ...
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Running Head: ESSAY

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Essay Discussion

The origins and development of Islam from the 7th to 10th centuries started in the
Arabian Peninsula between 610 to 750 CE. Islam by then experienced a subsequent and rapid
expansion within the Arab empire and encountered Muslim conquests that are today significant
in world history. The conquests in the first phase worked with an objective of being practical
since land and water proved to be scarce within the Arabian Peninsula. The second phase of
Islam development is known as the Abbasids, and it involved a cease of expansion since the
major principles focused on theology, law, mysticism, and philosophy. Bentle...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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