Statistics assignment requiring SPSS

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Statistics assignment requiring SPSS...........................................................................................................................

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Introduction to Statistical Analysis Using IBM SPSS Statistics Student Guide Course Code: 0G517 ERC 1.0 Introduction to Statistical Analysis Using IBM SPSS Statistics Licensed Materials - Property of IBM © Copyright IBM Corp. 2010 0G517 Published October 2010 US Government Users Restricted Rights - Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp. IBM, the IBM logo and ibm.com are trademarks of International Business Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. SPSS, SamplePower, and PASW are trademarks of SPSS Inc., an IBM Company, registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies. This guide contains proprietary information which is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be photocopied, reproduced, or translated into another language without a legal license agreement from IBM Corporation. Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of the materials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk. TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents LESSON 0: COURSE INTRODUCTION .................................................. 0-1 0.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 0-1 0.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................................... 0-1 0.3 ABOUT SPSS ...................................................................................................................... 0-1 0.4 SUPPORTING MATERIALS ................................................................................................... 0-2 0.5 COURSE ASSUMPTIONS ...................................................................................................... 0-2 LESSON 1: INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ............. 1-1 1.1 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 1-1 1.2 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1-1 1.3 BASIC STEPS OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS ......................................................................... 1-1 1.4 POPULATIONS AND SAMPLES ............................................................................................. 1-3 1.5 RESEARCH DESIGN ............................................................................................................. 1-3 1.6 INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES ..................................................................... 1-4 1.7 NOTE ABOUT DEFAULT STARTUP FOLDER AND VARIABLE DISPLAY IN DIALOG BOXES .. 1-4 1.8 LESSON SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 1-5 1.9 LEARNING ACTIVITY .......................................................................................................... 1-6 LESSON 2: UNDERSTANDING DATA DISTRIBUTIONS – THEORY2-1 2.1 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 2-1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 2-1 2.2 LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT AND STATISTICAL METHODS ................................................. 2-1 2.3 MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION ..................................................... 2-5 2.4 NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS ................................................................................................... 2-7 2.5 STANDARDIZED (Z-) SCORES ............................................................................................. 2-8 2.6 REQUESTING STANDARDIZED (Z-) SCORES...................................................................... 2-10 2.7 STANDARDIZED (Z-) SCORES OUTPUT ............................................................................. 2-10 2.8 PROCEDURE: DESCRIPTIVES FOR STANDARDIZED (Z-) SCORES ...................................... 2-10 2.9 DEMONSTRATION: DESCRIPTIVES FOR Z-SCORES............................................................ 2-11 2.10 LESSON SUMMARY ......................................................................................................... 2-12 2.11 LEARNING ACTIVITY ...................................................................................................... 2-13 LESSON 3: DATA DISTRIBUTIONS FOR CATEGORICAL VARIABLES ............................................................................................ 3-1 3.1 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 3-1 3.2 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 3-1 3.3 USING FREQUENCIES TO SUMMARIZE NOMINAL AND ORDINAL VARIABLES .................... 3-2 3.4 REQUESTING FREQUENCIES ............................................................................................... 3-3 3.5 FREQUENCIES OUTPUT ....................................................................................................... 3-3 3.6 PROCEDURE: FREQUENCIES ............................................................................................... 3-4 3.7 DEMONSTRATION: FREQUENCIES ....................................................................................... 3-6 3.8 LESSON SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 3-10 3.9 LEARNING ACTIVITY ........................................................................................................ 3-10 i INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USING IBM SPSS STATISTICS LESSON 4: DATA DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SCALE VARIABLES ......... 4-1 4.1 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................4-1 4.2 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................4-1 4.3 SUMMARIZING SCALE VARIABLES USING FREQUENCIES...................................................4-1 4.4 REQUESTING FREQUENCIES ................................................................................................4-2 4.5 FREQUENCIES OUTPUT .......................................................................................................4-2 4.6 PROCEDURE: FREQUENCIES ................................................................................................4-4 4.7 DEMONSTRATION: FREQUENCIES .......................................................................................4-6 4.8 SUMMARIZING SCALE VARIABLES USING DESCRIPTIVES.................................................4-11 4.9 REQUESTING DESCRIPTIVES .............................................................................................4-11 4.10 DESCRIPTIVES OUTPUT ...................................................................................................4-11 4.11 PROCEDURE: DESCRIPTIVES ...........................................................................................4-11 4.12 DEMONSTRATION: DESCRIPTIVES...................................................................................4-12 4.13 SUMMARIZING SCALE VARIABLES USING THE EXPLORE PROCEDURE ...........................4-13 4.14 REQUESTING EXPLORE ...................................................................................................4-13 4.15 PROCEDURE: EXPLORE ...................................................................................................4-16 4.16 DEMONSTRATION: EXPLORE...........................................................................................4-19 4.17 LESSON SUMMARY .........................................................................................................4-24 4.18 LEARNING ACTIVITY ......................................................................................................4-25 LESSON 5: MAKING INFERENCES ABOUT POPULATIONS FROM SAMPLES ............................................................................................ 5-1 5.1 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................5-1 5.2 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................5-1 5.3 BASICS OF MAKING INFERENCES ABOUT POPULATIONS FROM SAMPLES ..........................5-1 5.4 INFLUENCE OF SAMPLE SIZE ...............................................................................................5-2 5.5 HYPOTHESIS TESTING .......................................................................................................5-10 5.6 THE NATURE OF PROBABILITY .........................................................................................5-11 5.7 TYPES OF STATISTICAL ERRORS .......................................................................................5-11 5.8 STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PRACTICAL IMPORTANCE ............................................5-12 5.9 LESSON SUMMARY ...........................................................................................................5-13 5.10 LEARNING ACTIVITY ......................................................................................................5-13 LESSON 6: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CATEGORICAL VARIABLES ........................................................................................... 6-1 ii TABLE OF CONTENTS 6.1 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 6-1 6.2 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 6-1 6.3 CROSSTABS......................................................................................................................... 6-2 6.4 CROSSTABS ASSUMPTIONS................................................................................................. 6-3 6.5 REQUESTING CROSSTABS ................................................................................................... 6-3 6.6 CROSSTABS OUTPUT .......................................................................................................... 6-3 6.7 PROCEDURE: CROSSTABS ................................................................................................... 6-4 6.8 EXAMPLE: CROSSTABS ....................................................................................................... 6-5 6.9 CHI-SQUARE TEST .............................................................................................................. 6-7 6.10 REQUESTING THE CHI-SQUARE TEST ............................................................................... 6-8 6.11 CHI-SQUARE OUTPUT....................................................................................................... 6-8 6.12 PROCEDURE: CHI-SQUARE TEST ...................................................................................... 6-9 6.13 EXAMPLE: CHI-SQUARE TEST ........................................................................................ 6-10 6.14 CLUSTERED BAR CHART ................................................................................................ 6-11 6.15 REQUESTING A CLUSTERED BAR CHART WITH CHART BUILDER .................................. 6-12 6.16 CLUSTERED BAR CHART FROM CHART BUILDER OUTPUT ............................................ 6-12 6.17 PROCEDURE: CLUSTERED BAR CHART WITH CHART BUILDER ..................................... 6-13 6.18 EXAMPLE: CLUSTERED BAR CHART WITH CHART BUILDER ......................................... 6-15 6.19 ADDING A CONTROL VARIABLE ..................................................................................... 6-16 6.20 REQUESTING A CONTROL VARIABLE ............................................................................. 6-17 6.21 CONTROL VARIABLE OUTPUT ........................................................................................ 6-17 6.22 PROCEDURE: ADDING A CONTROL VARIABLE ............................................................... 6-18 6.23 EXAMPLE: ADDING A CONTROL VARIABLE ................................................................... 6-19 6.24 EXTENSIONS: BEYOND CROSSTABS ............................................................................... 6-22 6.25 ASSOCIATION MEASURES............................................................................................... 6-23 6.26 LESSON SUMMARY ......................................................................................................... 6-23 6.27 LEARNING ACTIVITY ...................................................................................................... 6-24 LESSON 7: THE INDEPENDENT- SAMPLES T TEST .......................... 7-1 7.1 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 7-1 7.2 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 7-1 7.3 THE INDEPENDENT-SAMPLES T TEST ................................................................................ 7-1 7.4 INDEPENDENT-SAMPLES T TEST ASSUMPTIONS ................................................................ 7-2 7.5 REQUESTING THE INDEPENDENT-SAMPLES T TEST ........................................................... 7-2 7.6 INDEPENDENT-SAMPLES T TEST OUTPUT .......................................................................... 7-3 7.7 PROCEDURE: INDEPENDENT-SAMPLES T TEST .................................................................. 7-5 7.8 DEMONSTRATION: INDEPENDENT-SAMPLES T TEST.......................................................... 7-6 7.9 ERROR BAR CHART .......................................................................................................... 7-10 7.10 REQUESTING AN ERROR BAR CHART WITH CHART BUILDER ........................................ 7-11 7.11 ERROR BAR CHART OUTPUT .......................................................................................... 7-11 7.12 DEMONSTRATION: ERROR BAR CHART WITH CHART BUILDER .................................... 7-12 7.13 LESSON SUMMARY ......................................................................................................... 7-14 7.14 LEARNING ACTIVITY ...................................................................................................... 7-14 LESSON 8: THE PAIRED-SAMPLES T TEST ........................................ 8-1 iii INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USING IBM SPSS STATISTICS 8.1 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................8-1 8.2 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................8-1 8.3 THE PAIRED-SAMPLES T TEST ............................................................................................8-1 8.4 ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE PAIRED-SAMPLES T TEST .............................................................8-2 8.5 REQUESTING A PAIRED-SAMPLES T TEST ..........................................................................8-3 8.6 PAIRED-SAMPLES T TEST OUTPUT .....................................................................................8-3 8.7 PROCEDURE: PAIRED-SAMPLES T TEST..............................................................................8-4 8.8 DEMONSTRATION: PAIRED-SAMPLES T TEST .....................................................................8-4 8.9 LESSON SUMMARY .............................................................................................................8-6 8.10 LEARNING ACTIVITY ........................................................................................................8-6 LESSON 9: ONE-WAY ANOVA ............................................................... 9-1 9.1 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................9-1 9.2 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................9-1 9.3 ONE-WAY ANOVA ..............................................................................................................9-1 9.4 ASSUMPTIONS OF ONE-WAY ANOVA ...............................................................................9-2 9.5 REQUESTING ONE-WAY ANOVA ......................................................................................9-2 9.6 ONE-WAY ANOVA OUTPUT ..............................................................................................9-3 9.7 PROCEDURE: ONE-WAY ANOVA ......................................................................................9-4 9.8 DEMONSTRATION: ONE-WAY ANOVA .............................................................................9-6 9.9 POST HOC TESTS WITH A ONE-WAY ANOVA ...................................................................9-8 9.10 REQUESTING POST HOC TESTS WITH A ONE-WAY ANOVA ...........................................9-9 9.11 POST HOC TESTS OUTPUT.................................................................................................9-9 9.12 PROCEDURE: POST HOC TESTS WITH A ONE-WAY ANOVA..........................................9-10 9.13 DEMONSTRATION: POST HOC TESTS WITH A ONE-WAY ANOVA .................................9-12 9.14 ERROR BAR CHART WITH CHART BUILDER ...................................................................9-14 9.15 REQUESTING AN ERROR BAR CHART WITH CHART BUILDER ........................................9-14 9.16 ERROR BAR CHART OUTPUT ..........................................................................................9-14 9.17 PROCEDURE: ERROR BAR CHART WITH CHART BUILDER ..............................................9-15 9.18 DEMONSTRATION: ERROR BAR CHART WITH CHART BUILDER .....................................9-16 9.19 LESSON SUMMARY .........................................................................................................9-18 9.20 LEARNING ACTIVITY ......................................................................................................9-18 LESSON 10: BIVARIATE PLOTS AND CORRELATIONS FOR SCALE VARIABLES .......................................................................................... 10-1 10.1 OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................................10-1 10.2 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................10-1 10.3 SCATTERPLOTS ...............................................................................................................10-1 10.4 REQUESTING A SCATTERPLOT ........................................................................................10-2 10.5 SCATTERPLOT OUTPUT ...................................................................................................10-3 10.6 PROCEDURE: SCATTERPLOT ...........................................................................................10-3 10.7 DEMONSTRATION: SCATTERPLOT ...................................................................................10-4 10.8 ADDING A BEST FIT STRAIGHT LINE TO THE SCATTERPLOT ..........................................10-5 10.9 PEARSON CORRELATION COE ...
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Tutor Answer

ProfBaron1
School: UCLA

Hi NiteshA, kindly check on the following documents and let me know if you've got any queries.
Attached.

Surname: 1

Student Name:
Professor Name:
Course Number:
Date:
Section 7.14

1. Men and women differ in their socioeconomic index. We can use the t-test
respondents sex

Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid
RESPONDENT
S SEX
RESPONDENT
MALE
SOCIOECONOMI
FEMALE
C INDEX

N

Percen
t

Missing
Percen
t

N

887 95.5%

42

4.5%

1024 93.6%

70

6.4%

Surname: 2

Case Processing Summary
Cases
Total
RESPONDENTS SEX
RESPONDENT
SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX

MALE
FEMALE

RESPONDENT SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX
Histograms

N

Percent
929

100.0%

1094

100.0%

Surname: 3

Surname: 4

Surname: 5

EXAMINE VARIABLES=sei agekdbrn BY sex
/PLOT BOXPLOT HISTOGRAM
/COMPARE GROUPS
/STATISTICS NONE
/CINTERVAL 95
/MISSING LISTWISE
/NOTOTAL.

Surname: 6

Explore
RESPONDENTS SEX
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid
RESPONDENT
S SEX

N

Percen
t

Missing

N

Percen
t

RESPONDENT
MALE
SOCIOECONOMI
FEMALE
C INDEX

598 64.4%

331 35.6%

817 74.7%

277 25.3%

R'S AGE WHEN
1ST CHILD
BORN

MALE

598 64.4%

331 35.6%

FEMALE

817 74.7%

277 25.3%

Case Processing Summary
Cases
Total
RESPONDENTS SEX
RESPONDENT
SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX

MALE
FEMALE

R'S AGE WHEN 1ST CHILD
BORN

MALE
FEMALE

N

Percent
929

100.0%

1094

100.0%

929

100.0%

1094

100.0%

Surname: 7

RESPONDENT SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX

Histograms

Surname: 8

Surname: 9

Surname: 10

R'S AGE WHEN 1ST CHILD BORN

Histograms

Surname: 11

T-Test

Surname: 12

2, T -TEST

Group Statistics
RESPONDENT
S SEX
RESPONDENT
MALE
SOCIOECONOMI
FEMALE
C INDEX
R'S AGE WHEN
MALE
1ST CHILD BORN
FEMALE

N

Mean

Std.
Deviation

887 49.109

19.4399

1024 48.458

19.5677

623

25.00

5.444

866

22.87

5.128

Group Statistics
RESPONDENTS SEX
RESPONDENT SOCIOECONOMIC MALE
INDEX
FEMALE
R'S AGE WHEN 1ST CHILD BORN MALE
FEMALE

Independent Samples Test

Std. Error Mean
.6527
.6115
.218
.174

Surname: 13

ttest
for
Eq
uali
ty
Levene's Test of
for Equality Me
of Variances ans

F
RESPOND
ENT
SOCIOEC
ONOMIC
INDEX

R'S AGE
WHEN
1ST
CHILD
BORN

Equal
variances
assumed...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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