Lab report about Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles

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Question Description

1.please check the lab "experiment process" and "lab report tips" and "evaluation" first.

2.including every section the lab report tips mentioned (for example: like the instruction,abstract,etc.) not a native speaker so try not to use professional vocabulary when you write it thank you !

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Nanoparticles Lab Report Evaluation Form- 50pts Name ______________________________ 1. Title Page – 2pts - Informative title for lab report - Name, course and lab section, date, lab instructor’s name and name of lab partner 2. Abstract – 4pts - Brief description of experiment, results and main conclusions in under 200 words 3. Introduction – 10pts - Purpose for the experiment described in the report - Brief background description on nanotechnology (applications) and nanoparticles (physical and chemical properties, size & unique optical properties - Review of chemical concepts & techniques relevant to the experiment (importance of positive control & one independent variable, synthesis of gold nanoparticles, using a spec, using wavelength to determine GNP size - Hypothesis for the experiment 4. Experimental Method – 8pts - Lab procedures are outlined in paragraph form - no bullets! - Experiment is well-designed - No results or data are reported in this section - Cite lab manual 5. Results – 8pts - All raw data from experiment is presented in a table or graph, as appropriate - Tables/figures are clear and easy to interpret with labeled axes and columns and units clearly specified - Graphs/tables are numbered with a meaningful title and legend explaining what should be seen by the reader (trends in data) - All calculations from the data are included with 1 sample calculation shown with full explanation of all variables - No methods or discussion of the data are presented in the Results section - Summary of the Results in text format concludes the section 6. Discussion – 11pts - Begin with the purpose of the experiment and a statement of the hypothesis - Did your experiment support your hypothesis? Explain why your data did (or did not) support your hypothesis use specific data in support of each conclusion - Correct interpretation of experimental results (what do your results indicate?) - Discussion of possible errors that may have affected results; ways to prevent errors in the future - Potential improvements or suggestions for additional experimentation? 7. Format – 4 pts - Individual sections are labeled - Sentence format with passive voice (no first person!) and correct verb tense are used - Carefully proofread for grammatical & spelling errors 8. References Cited – 2 pts - All information from other sources is cited using ACS format (Please no Wikipedia! - Cite lab manual and at least 2 additional sources 9. Self-Evaluation – 1 pt - Use a copy of this rubric to self-evaluate your lab report. In other words, if you were grading your lab report, how many points would it earn? Self-Evaluation (50 pts possible): _______ TOTAL POINTS (50 pts possible): _______ How to Write a Good Chemistry Lab Report A good chemistry lab report follows a very specific format with separate sections in the following order: Abstract, Introduction, Experimental Methods, Results, Discussion, and References Cited. Each section should begin with the name of the section such as Introduction, followed by the text of the Introduction. These sections should follow one another in sequence but there’s no need to start a new page for each section. Your lab report must be typed and carefully proofread for grammatical and spelling errors. In science, what matters most in an experiment is what was done, not who did it. As a result, the active voice should not be used in your lab report--such as “I placed the chromatogram in the chromatography beaker for 45 minutes.” Avoid any ‘I’ or ‘we’ statements. Instead, use the passive voice which your English teachers always told you to avoid, such as “The chromatogram was placed in the beaker for 45 minutes”. Write the Experimental Methods and Results sections in the past tense. In contrast, the interpretation of the data in the Discussion section should be written in the present tense. All equations should be written on a separate line and numbered sequentially starting at the beginning of the lab report as shown below. Be sure to explain all variables in the equation when the equation is first introduced. Equation 1: e = mc2 where e = energy m = mass of the object c = speed of light (3.0 X 108 m/sec) Here’s a brief description of the different sections of the lab report and what they should (and should not) include. Your lab instructor will give you some additional instructions. The evaluation form your TA will use to grade your lab report is posted on Blackboard, and I strongly encourage you to read it over before and after you write your lab report. For your first lab report of the semester, you can get some feedback from your TA BEFORE you hand the lab report in for grading. Just ask. Title Page The title page should have an informative title so that the reader knows what your experiment is about. For example, “Nitrogen Content of Water” tells the reader very little compared to “Monthly Changes in Nitrogen Content of the Potomac River near Power Plants”. Also include on the title page your name, the date, course name & lab section number and your lab instructor’s name. If you worked with a lab partner, that information should also be on the title page. Abstract The abstract is a concise summary of your report which tells the reader what to expect if they read the full lab report. It should name (but not describe)the general methods used (e.g., chromatography), and give a brief description of your results and major conclusions. Abstracts should be no longer than 1-2 paragraphs. Introduction The main question addressed in this section is “What is this experiment all about and why was it done?” Here you should include the purpose for the experiment, the theory behind the major methods used in your experiment (e.g., how does chromatography work?), pertinent equations (e.g., Beer’s law for spec lab) and any background information which is needed to understand your experiment. “A good introduction is a clear statement of the problem or project and why you are studying it.” (ACS Style Guide, American Chemical 1 Society, Washington, D.C. 1986) Every Introduction should end with a hypothesis for the experiment. Introduction - Writing a Hypothesis A hypothesis is a statement that gives an educated guess as to the outcome of an experiment. A good hypothesis clearly identifies the independent and dependent variables in the experiment and is as informative as possible about the experiment. The most common type of hypothesis is the null hypothesis because null hypotheses are always used when the data is to be analyzed statistically. Statistical analyses test the idea that two or more sets of data are identical and that any differences seen between the data sets are just due to random variation. Only when the variation exceeds a set threshold are the data sets said to be significantly different from each other. Because of the way statistical analyses work, a null hypothesis is used for all statistical tests. Null hypotheses are always some version of “There is no difference between the data sets”. For example, let’s say that you were synthesizing gold nanoparticles (which you will be doing later this semester) to see if the temperature of the synthesis reaction changes the size of the resulting gold nanoparticles. Here are some examples of hypotheses for the described experiment. Which hypotheses are correct and which could use some improvement? See page 4 for the answers. 1. There are no differences in the size of gold nanoparticles synthesized at different temperatures. 2. The size of the gold nanoparticles are all the same at different temperatures. 3. Temperature does not affect the size of nanoparticles. 4. Gold nanoparticles synthesized at lower temperatures (20oC – 50oC) are larger compared to nanoparticles synthesized at higher temperatures. In General Chemistry lab, statistical tests are rather rare because the size of the data set is usually small. As a result, a null hypothesis is not necessarily required for most General Chemistry lab experiments but it is still an acceptable option. Here’s another acceptable way to word a good hypothesis. Let’s suppose that you are testing to see if where a student sits in the classroom affects the grade they get in the course. A good null hypothesis for the experiment would be “The grade which students receive in a course is not affected by where they sit in the classroom.” An alternative and equally good hypothesis might be “Students who sit at the front of the room receive significantly higher grades than students who sit at the back of the room.” Experimental Method (Often called Materials & Methods in Biology lab reports) this section answers the question “How exactly was this experiment done?” It should provide sufficient detail for the experiment to be repeated very precisely by the reader including: the make & model of any specialized equipment, sizes of beakers, solution volumes and concentrations, etc… If you followed a protocol of the written lab experiment with no modifications, summarize the protocol in a few sentences then cite the lab experiment and the relevant pages for the procedures. If you made any changes to the lab procedure, cite the lab experiment and indicate the specific changes you made to the procedure. No data or discussion of the data should be included in this section. Results Include all the raw data from the experiment in this section even if some of the data appear inconsistent or in error. Never discard data to make the results look better. Lab 2 reports are evaluated not on how perfect your data is, but how well you explain your data. Be sure to present your data in the Results section so that the reader can easily interpret your tables and graphs and know what they mean. Tables are usually best for presenting raw data while graphs are a good way to summarize data from a table so that the reader can see any trends in the data. All tables and graphs should be numbered sequentially from the beginning of the lab report and have: a meaningful title; labeled rows, columns and axes with units; and a legend explaining what is seen in the table or graph. Graphs should be done in Excel or an equivalent graphing program and any statistical programs used to analyze the data should be cited in the References section. See ‘How to Create a Graph in Excel” which is posted on Blackboard. Trend lines on graphs should include the equation for the line on the graph. A sample calculation should be presented in the Results section for each type of calculations but any similar additional calculations can be presented in a table. At the end of the Results section, include a 1-3 sentence summary of the section in text format. Discussion This is the most important section of the Lab Report because it accepts or rejects your hypothesis, interprets the meaning of the data and draws conclusions. In chemistry lab reports, the discussion section should show an understanding of the chemistry behind the procedure if explanation is needed. For example, compare the statements “The pH decreased” versus “The pH of the solution decreased due to the release of hydrogen ions by the reaction of . . . “ The latter connects the result of a decreasing pH with the chemistry – what good chemistry lab reports always do. Always cite your data to support your conclusions and refer to the data very specifically. For example, “The Rf values were about the same” isn’t nearly as convincing as “The Rf value for the yellow dye 5 standard was 0.68 which was nearly identical to the Rf value for the unknown dye of 0.67.” Your data can also be compared to results from the literature. Any inconsistencies with the literature should be thoroughly explained if possible. In addition, any errors or confounding factors in your experiment which may have affected your results should be discussed. This could be a random error such as you dropped the test tube and spilled half of its contents, or a more systematic error such as the oven was set to the incorrect temperature. Predict how the error would be expected to affect your results. Remember the lab report will not be graded on how perfectly you did the experiment, but on how thoroughly and accurately you present and explain the results of your own experiment. Finally, if you have any suggestions for changes or modifications to the procedure which might improve future experiments, mention these in the discussion section. References Cited You should use the reference guidelines from the American Chemical Society. Here are a couple of links which describe the ACS style:, or Here is an example of how to cite the Chemistry 110 lab experiments that are posted on Blackboard: Ferguson, J. 2017. “What’s the Best Antacid?”, =designer&content_id=_3753950_1&course_id=_161710_1. Accessed 17 Oct 2017. 3 Plagiarism in Lab Reports One of the most grievous errors in chemistry lab reports is plagiarism. All instances of plagiarism will be referred to the Dean and may result in an ‘F’ in the class. Examples of plagiarism include copying from the lab experimental write-up, using another student’s lab report, failure to cite online references that you paraphrased, and the use of graphs or figures from another student’s lab report. Every student must write their own, original lab report. While it is perfectly okay to discuss your experiment and its interpretation with your lab partner, do not share your lab report with them or ask to see theirs. Answers to Writing a Hypothesis: 1. CORRECT. This is a well-written null hypothesis that specifies the independent and the dependent variables. The only way it could be more complete is to include the specific temperatures that were tested. 2. NEEDS IMPROVEMENT. This is NOT a good null hypothesis because it is too vague, omitting any mention that it was the temperature of the synthesis reaction that was tested. It sounds as if the experiment was moving gold nanoparticles to different temperatures to see if they changed size. 3. NEEDS IMPROVEMENT. This is another poor null hypothesis because it doesn’t clearly define that it is the temperature of the synthesis reaction that is being tested. 4. CORRECT. This is a well-written alternative hypothesis that clearly identifies the independent and dependent variables and the expected outcome of the experiment. 4 Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles Terms:  Breakdown method  Build-up method  Control variable  Dependent variable  Drug delivery  Independent variable  Nanomedicine  Nanoparticle  Nanorods  Nanotechnology  Nanometer (nm)  Reducing agent  Replication  UV-visible spectroscopy  Wavelength Figure 1. Size scale for nanoparticles as compared to other materials (top). Nanoparticles can be adapted to include biomolecules, drugs, or targeting and imaging molecules to form nanotechnology-based drug delivery platforms (bottom). Introduction Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the science, engineering and technology of working with extremely small things in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers (nm) (6). One nanometer is a very small unit because it takes 109 nanometers to make one meter and 25,400,000 nm to make one inch. Richard Feynman is often credited as being the father of nanotechnology because of a speech he gave in 1959 entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”. Feynman speculated about the ability to visualize and manipulate individual atoms and molecules which seemed pretty crazy at the time. Although it took another twenty plus years, the development of the scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope made it possible to not only see individual atoms but also to move them around. Figure 2 shows you the first creation using nanotechnology. What’s so special about nanotechnology? It’s not just that the particles are extremely small such as individual atoms but more that extremely small particles less than 100 nm in diameter, have Figure 2. The first created nanostructure which spelled IBM in 35 xenon atoms on a unique properties compared to their larger copper substrate. For example, metallic nanoparticles 101/what/working-nanoscale may have a lower melting point, a higher surface 1 area per unit of volume or mass, special optical properties, unique mechanical strengths and/or magnetic properties that their bulk metal counterparts lack. These unique physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles are often highly desirable for industrial and medical applications. If I asked you what color gold atoms were, you would probably say “gold or yellow” because you’re thinking of gold jewelry or a gold watch, right? While a large sample of gold always appears gold or yellow, a solution of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) may appear blue, red, or purple depending on the size of the nanoparticles in the solution (1). Why do gold nanoparticles appear these different colors? When gold nanoparticles are similar in size to a wavelength of visible light (400–750 nm), they interact with the light in interesting ways. The volume and shape of the nanoparticles in a solution determine the color of the solution. Look at Figure 3. As the diameter of a gold nanoparticle increases, the wavelength of maximum absorbance gradually shifts to longer wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Figure 3. The size of the gold nanoparticles in solution determines the wavelength of maximum absorbance and their color. From Ref. 4 LizMarzán , L.M. ( 2006 ) Langmuir , 22: 32 – 41 . These unique properties of nanoparticles are one of the fundamental attractions in working with them and have been for centuries – even before anyone had heard the word nanoparticle. Nanotechnology is evident in many old churches. Although medieval artisans were unaware that they were using nanotechnology, the ruby red color used in stained glass Figure 4. Stained glass rosace in the Cathedrale Notrewindows during the Middle Ages Dame de Chartres (France), color changes depend on was an early application of the size and shape of gold and silver nanoparticle. nanotechnology (Figure 4). Modern chemical studies have shown that these vivid colors resulted from the different sizes and shapes of the 2 gold and silver nanoparticles in the windows. Today, nanomaterials can not only be efficiently synthesized but also modified with various chemical functional groups and/or conjugated with antibodies, ligands or drugs of interest. These modified gold nanoparticles have yielded new potential applications in biotechnology, magnetic separation, targeted drug delivery, improved diagnostic imaging and use as vehicles for gene and drug delivery to cells. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Today you will be synthesizing gold nanoparticles. Each nanoparticle contains hundreds to thousands of atoms. Unlike small molecules that have a specific chemical formula, nanoparticles vary in the number and arrangement of their atoms - even in a supposedly pure batch. In order to make nanoparticles, two general methods are commonly used. The first is the breakdown (top-down) method in which an external force is applied to a solid that breaks it into smaller particles. The second is the build-up (bottom-up) method that produces nanoparticles starting with atoms of gas or liquid which then undergo atomic transformations or molecular condensations (Figure 5). The synthesis of nanoparticles using the microwave for heating has become a popular option in recent year ...
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Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles
Course’s Name
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Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles
The experiment, in general, fulfilled the goals of determining the size and
centralization of gold nanoparticles and the impacts expansion of NaCl. It is set up that
the size is needy in the wavelength assimilation in the UV-Vis. And that an electrolyte, in
this experiment NaCl, influences the gold nanoparticles by veering off plasmon retention
top an incentive from its unique assimilation crest. Thus, as NaCl expands, the
adjustment in surface plasmon width additionally increment. Despite the fact that the
impacts in λmax and Δλ were little since the citrate balanced out gold nanoparticles are
steady over the scope of NaCl concentration. For further analysis, the experimenter could
begin a similar trial utilizing TEM to recognize the genuine size and contrast and the UVVis figured qualities.
Purpose of the experiment:
The objective of the experiment to know how to incorporate gold nanoparticles
utilizing standards overseeing nanoparticle union, plot a chart of the arrangement's
absorbances created from the UV-Vis spectrophotometer at various wavelengths, and
decide the size and the grouping of the gold nanoparticles in the arrangement. In this
report, gold nanoparticles were orchestrated from lessening chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) by
including trisodium citrate and warming it to guarantee a finish decrease (Turkevich et.
al., 1951). The arrangement was then broke down utilizing UV-Vis spectrophotometry.
The size and the grouping of the gold nanoparticles were then decided from the


absorbances recorded. A similar procedure was rehashed with the expansion of NaCl to
the arrangement.
Background description:
Gold nanoparticles have been utilized for quite a while in science,
nanotechnology, and medicinal applications because of their special optical properties
(Sigma Aldrich). These gold nanoparticles show up as colloidal gold. Colloidal gold will
be gold nanoparticles normally in a liquid, usually water. Faraday has detailed the
arrangement of dark red arrangements upon the decrease of chloroaurate (AuCl4-)
particles with white phosphorus in a two-stage CS2– water blend (Haiss, 2007). Colloidal
gold in watery arrangements shows a scope of various hues (e.g., dark coloured, orange,
red, purple) as the extent of the nanoparticle increments.
Review of chemical concepts & techniques:
It demonstrates the optical assimilation spectra of the arrangement which has no
NaCl impact. The UV-V is spectra uncover a trademark assimilation pinnacle of the Au
colloidal situated at 526 nm ...

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