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Read Chapter 1, Thinking About the Future of Law Enforcement and write a 1200-word in length response essay

excluding the cover page, abstract, and reference page wording, and include the cover page, abstract page with keywords, in-text citations in the body from the assigned reading at a minimum, references page, running head, and properly placed page number on each page.

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A Word from the Chairman The Futures Working Group (FWG) was created in the winter of 2002. The hearts and minds of many worked to establish this but perhaps no one was as energetic and passionate about this as the former Chairman of the FWG and now retired Supervisory Special Agent Carl J. Jensen, III. Much of what I have to offer to both the FWG and to the world of futurists comes from the privilege of working with Dr. Jensen for almost 10 years. As such, much of the introduction to this latest product of the FWG can be found in the previous words of Chairman Jensen (see e.g. Homeland Security 2015). Under his guidance, the FWG has been very successful in its effort to examine the pressing issues confronting the future of law enforcement. In addition to regular meetings of this group, several articles, at least two books, numerous training events, and many conference appearances devoted to the topic of futures have resulted. Through these efforts, the FWG has continually examined what futurists term the “possible, probable, and preferable” futures. As I attempt to fill the shoes of the previous chairman and begin my tenure as Chairman of the FWG, I have but one singular mission: to further the efforts of the FWG in promoting the notion that by examining future possibilities we may be able to “create” the future rather than simply waiting for it to unfold. The present volume was inspired by the many activities of the Futures Working Group and found its roots in the numerous discussions, white papers, and thoughtprovoking works that the FWG has produced since its creation at the beginning of the second millennium. Its aim is to examine social, economic, political, and cultural changes and their influences on the state of police operations and agencies that are pertinent to the future of policing. While the title suggests the time frame of 2020 as a reference point, many works contained herein are not as much predictions of events tied to this time frame but analysis of trends and patterns that likely will play a role in the future of policing by 2020. i Given the state of the world and the policing profession in early 2007, we could not have envisioned a timelier topic than that of policing in the year 2020. To be sure, much has been written about policing; however, little has concerned itself with the future of this vocation. As you will see in this volume, it is clear that many possible futures exist in regard to this very important area. This volume is an attempt to consider some of them and, further, to articulate strategies to bring about the best of all possible futures. As you read the works contained herein remember that the goal of futurists is to inspire thought and provocative ideas that these works encourage. These arguments may both challenge your consciousness and confirm your sensibilities pertaining to the future of policing. Some of these notions may also incense you. Contemplating our future often yields these outcomes. Examining new, yet challenging, ideas often brings forth such passions. In the end, you may agree with some perspectives offered and disagree with others. You may feel somewhat unnerved by what has been written. This is expected and characteristic of much of what futurists have to offer. As similarly expressed in prior FWG volumes: “Ultimately, our fervent desire is that this work will motivate you to devise ways to create your own preferred future.” By doing so, we hope that not only you, but also the communities agencies you serve, will benefit from the exercise of considering the future of law enforcement. John P. Jarvis, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Behavioral Science Unit, FBI Academy Chairman, Futures Working Group Quantico, Virginia March, 2007 The opinions and statements contained in this volume are those of the individual authors and should not be considered an endorsement by the FBI or the Department of Justice for any policy, program or service. ii Policing 2020: Exploring the Future of Crime, Communities, and Policing Edited by Joseph A. Schafer To Ellie & Andrew For whom the future holds unlimited promise. To Harjit Sidhu 7/22/74 – 12/02/86 Whose future was tragically stolen. And to Shelby My past, present, and future. Policing 2020: Exploring the Future of Crime, Communities, and Policing Table of Contents Acknowledgements .............................................................................................5 About the Authors ................................................................................................9 Chapter One Thinking About the Future of Policing Joseph A. Schafer .............................................................................................13 Chapter Two The World of 2020: Demographic Shifts, Cultural Change, and Social Challenge Carl J. Jensen & Bernard H. Levin ....................................................................31 1 Chapter Three Information Age Technology and Network Centric Policing Thomas J. Cowper ............................................................................................71 Chapter Four Crime in 2020 George Burruss ...............................................................................................104 Chapter Five The Future of Law Enforcement Communications By Susan Braunstein .......................................................................................133 Chapter Six The Patrol Function in the Future – One Vision James A. Conser & Gordon G. Frissora ........................................................173 Chapter Seven The Future of Investigations Alan Youngs ....................................................................................................209 Chapter Eight The Future of Law Enforcement Intelligence David L. Carter & Joseph A. Schafer ..............................................................226 Chapter Nine Police Information Management Sean P. Varano, Jeffrey M. Cancino, James Glass, & Roger Enriquez ........257 Chapter Ten Emergency Response Planning: The Practicalities Alan Beckley ....................................................................................................299 Chapter Eleven The Changing Landscape of American Police Organizations Edward R. Maguire & William R. King ............................................................337 Chapter Twelve The Future of Education and Training for Policing Joseph A. Schafer & Sandy Boyd ...................................................................372 2 Chapter Thirteen Human Capital In Policing: What Works, What Doesn’t Work, What’s Promising? Bernard H. Levin .............................................................................................414 Chapter Fourteen Third-Party Policing: Futures and Evolutions Michael Buerger ..............................................................................................452 Chapter Fifteen From Pyramids to Networks: Police Structure and Leadership in 2020 Richard W. Myers ............................................................................................487 Acknowledgements This book is the product of the hard work, dedication, and intellect of a cast of characters who offered their time, energy, and passion in thinking about the future of policing. I approached each contributor with the request to think about a specific dimension of policing and how that dimension will change during the next 15 years. The product is this book—a collection of chapters considering that state of policing in 2020 and how we will arrive at that point in time. All of the contributors freely gave of their time, receiving no compensation other than my thanks and the knowledge that their chapter might influence policing in a positive manner. This book would not have been possible without the many efforts of Supervisory Special Agent Dr. Carl Jensen III (Federal Bureau of Investigation) and Dr. Bernard “Bud” Levin (Blue Ridge Community College and Waynesboro, VA, Police Department). In the summer of 2004, I received a call from Carl and Bud asking me to help bring a “little” project to fruition. Over the past two years, they have provided invaluable insight, guidance, support, and advocacy for this project. Without their vision and hard work, you would not be reading this book. They deserve much of the credit, but none of the blame, for the book’s contents. Carl and Bud have done much to advance 3 futures research in policing and have served as the fearless leaders of the Futures Working Group. I know I speak for my fellow “FWGers” when I thank them for all they have done on our behalf. Further thanks to Dr. John Jarvis (Federal Bureau of Investigation) for patiently and skillfully stewarding this project through the editorial and production processes. Policing 2020 is largely a product of Police Futurists International (PFI) and the Futures Working Group (FWG), a collaborative partnership between PFI and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. PFI was created in 1991 after a decade of work and visionary leadership. Founded by then-Supervisory Special Agent Dr. William Tafoya (FBI), PFI was established to advance the study of how future issues will impact on policing. In the spring of 2002, PFI signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the FBI to create the Futures Working Group. The mission of the FWG is “to develop and encourage others to develop forecasts and strategies to ethically maximize the effectiveness of local, state, federal, and international law enforcement bodies as they strive to maintain peace and security in the 21st century.” As a part of that mission, FWG seeks to create and disseminate knowledge that will enhance the future development of policing. This book is one example of such efforts. My thanks to the FBI for supporting FWG by agreeing to publish this text. I am grateful to Chief Phillip Broadfoot (Danville, VA, Police Department) for the helpful insights he offered during the book’s early stages. Thanks to the members of the FWG for the insights, ideas, energy, and humor they shared throughout the process of developing the book. Special thanks to Jeff Cancino, Beth Huebner, Thomas Martinelli, Sean Varano and William Wells for their years of friendship, support, and collaboration. The chapters were written by a dedicated, hard-working, and patient set of professionals from varied backgrounds. They dedicated long hours, endured my 4 pestering, and produced quality insights, all from the goodness of their hearts. This book was also greatly aided by the efforts of a hard-working set of volunteers who reviewed and commented on early drafts of the manuscript. Some are members of PFI, others are not. Some come from a background in policing, others from academia. Some are longtime associates, others are new friends. All provided valuable insight and input to help the authors develop and effectively deliver their ideas. Thank you for your tireless efforts. Reviewers included: Dr. Sandy Boyd, College of Marin† Dr. Susan Braunstein, Barry University Thomas Cowper, police executive † Dr. Chuck Cychosz, Ames (IA) Police Department Dr. Stephen Hennessey, St. Cloud State University* Dr. Sameer Hinduja, Florida Atlantic University Dr. Beth Huebner, University of Missouri- St. Louis Lt. Geoff Huff, Ames (IA) Police Department Dr. John Jarvis, Federal Bureau of Investigation and Futures Working Group chair† Supervisory Special Agent Dr. Carl Jensen III, Federal Bureau of Investigation and past Futures Working Group chair† Stephanie Kennerley, Federal Bureau of Investigation Capt. Gerald Konkler, Tulsa (OK) Police Department (Ret.)* † Dr. Brandon Kooi, Lakeland College Dr. Bernard Levin, Blue Ridge Community College, Waynesboro (VA) Police Department, and Futures Working Group vice-chair† Merle Manzi, Florida Department of Law Enforcement (Ret.) Thomas J. Martinelli, Ferris State University Chief Alberto Melis, Waco (TX) Police Department† Assistant Commissioner R. Earl Moulton, Royal Canadian Mounted Police (Ret.) Chief Richard Myers, Appleton (WI) Police Department*† Dr. Andreas “Olli” Olligschlaeger, TruNorth Data Systems† Dr. Justin Patchin, University of Wisconsin- Eau Claire Chief Alicia Powers, Hercules (CA) Police Department (Ret.)* Jeri Roberts, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chief Todd Sigler, Southern Illinois University Police Department Dr. William Tafoya, Federal Bureau of Investigation (Ret.) & University of New Haven Dr. Sean Varano, Northeastern University 5 Division Chief Al Youngs, Lakewood (CO) Police Department (Ret.)* † * Past-president, Society of Police Futurists International † Member, Futures Working Group Special thanks to my parents, Grace and John, who encouraged my curiosity, taught me perseverance, cultivated my love of writing, and tolerated my long-standing fascination with policing (despite wanting to see me doing something a bit safer). Finally, love and thanks to my wife, Shelby, and our children, Ellie & Andrew. All three continue to endure my self-imposed demands and supported me throughout this and other projects. Once again, I am in your debt for the love, patience, and encouragement you continue to provide. A Note on Internet Resources and Products Mentioned Chapter contributors have drawn upon a wide range of information to develop and support their work. This includes the use of resources available on the internet. Web addresses (URLs) are found in many reference lists. These addresses were current at the time contributors finalized their chapters. The dynamic nature of the internet means that, unfortunately, some sources will not be found at the listed URL. Some chapters also make reference to specific companies and their products. In all instances, these references are provided purely for illustrative purposes. The inclusion or omission of a specific company or product does not constitute an implicit or explicit endorsement by the authors, editor, publisher, or the U.S. Department of Justice. 6 ABOUTTHEAUTHORS Alan Beckley is an expert in corporate governance, ethics, risk and contingency planning in the police service, and comparative legal and policing studies. He served over 30 years as a police officer in the UK, retiring at the rank of Chief Inspector. Alan has published widely on topics including emergency planning, police ethics, human rights, and police liability. He is the Managing Editor of two quarterly professional journals— Police Research & Management and Professional Consultancy. Alan has a Master of Science in Educational Management and Leadership (MSc. Ed., University College Worcester) and a Master of Laws (LLM, Wolverhampton University). Sandy Boyd is Professor of Administration of Justice at College of Marin in Kentfield, California. Dr. Boyd is also adjunct faculty for Excelsior College, teaching undergraduate Criminal Justice, Psychology and Sociology. For Capella University, Dr. Boyd teaches in the doctoral program in Education. Dr. Boyd is a member of Police Futurist International and the Futures Working Group. George Burruss is Assistant Professor in the Center for the Study of Crime, Delinquency, and Corrections at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. He received his Ph.D. in criminology and criminal justice from the University of Missouri-St. Louis. He has conducted research on the legal representation of juveniles, policing and security at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games, police gun-seizure programs, and policing reform in Northern Ireland. Currently, he is researching the impact of offender treatment programs. Before getting his graduate degree, Dr. Burruss served as a criminal investigator with the Office of the Missouri Attorney General. He investigated cases involving consumer fraud, antitrust, and public corruption. He has published in Justice Quarterly, Policing, and the Journal of Criminal Justice. Susan Braunstein is Associate Professor of Communications at Barry University, Miami, Florida, and is the Regional Vice President, Southern Region, of the International Association of Chiefs of Police Public Information Officers Section. She is a former journalist who writes, lectures, and consults on organizational communications. In addition to newspaper and radio journalism, her other writing credits include books, articles and films. In work specifically related to law enforcement, she has authored textbook chapters and numerous articles in law enforcement publications. She is the editor of Best Practices in Law Enforcement Public Information published by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (Alexandria, VA: 2005). Michael E. Buerger is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Bowling Green State University in northwest Ohio. He has been a municipal police officer in New Hampshire and Vermont, and directed police research projects in Minneapolis and New Jersey. Dr. Buerger is a member of the Futures Working Group. Jeffrey M. Cancino is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Texas State UniversitySan Marcos. His research interests include police culture and violence, data driven policing, social disorganization theory, homicide, and Latino studies. He has worked with members 7 from the San Antonio Police Department’s Strategic Analysis and Mapping Unit. Recent publications have appeared in Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, Criminal Justice Policy Review, and American Journal of Criminal Justice. James Conser is Faculty Emeritus for the Criminal Justice Department at Youngstown State University in Youngstown, Ohio. He has held academic and university administrative positions at since 1974. During a leave of absence, he was appointed by the Ohio Attorney General to serve as Assistant Executive Director of the Ohio Peace Officer Training Commission (from January of 1999 through December of 2002). He then he returned to YSU to resume his instructional duties with the Criminal Justice Department. Dr. Conser earned a Baccalaureate degree in Law Enforcement Administration from Youngstown State University, a M.S. degree in Criminal Justice from Michigan State University, and the degree of Ph.D. in Higher Education Administration from Kent State University. Additionally, Dr. Conser is a Certified Protection Professional, awarded through ASIS. He is also a co-author of textbooks entitled Law Enforcement in the United States, 2nd Edition (2005) and Police Personnel Systems (1983) as well as numerous articles and professional presentations. Furthermore, he is a lifetime member of the Police Futurist International and the National Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences as well as a member of ASIS International, the World Futures Society, the Ohio Criminal Justice Education Association and the Midwest Criminal Justice Association. Thomas J. Cowper is a 23-year law enforcement veteran who has held various patrol, administrative, training, management, and executive positions within his agency. Since 1995 he has been involved with technology procurements for law enforcement and the management of public safety radio system programs in his state. He is a member of the Futures Working Group. He is a graduate of the FBI National Academy, has a BS in Mechanical Engineering Technology from LeTourneau University, and a master’s degree in Public Administration from Marist College. He speaks and writes extensively on issues concerning technology and its impact on law enforcement and government. Roger Enriquez received his J.D. from the University of Iowa and is currently Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Texas-San Antonio. He has extensive experience representing defendants in criminal proceedings. Mr. Enriquez research agenda includes emerging police technology and its impact on privacy. Mr. Enriquez has worked with the Minnesota Public Defender’s Office and has received special appointm ...
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ProfJamesmiller
School: Carnegie Mellon University

Hello there, I have just completed the assignment. Please find attached. It has been nice working with you. 😊

Running head: RESPONSE ESSAY WRITING ASSIGNMENT

Response Essay Writing Assignment
Institution Affiliation
Date

1

RESPONSE ESSAY WRITING ASSIGNMENT

2

Abstract
The future of law enforcement is a crucial factor for every individual and the federal
bodies. Forecasting the future of law enforcement can be challenging, and it involves an array of
risks. The book, “Thinking about the Future of Law Enforcement” gives a brief overview of the
process of developing forecasts and assessments of the future. The book contains information on
the forms of futures in law enforcement. The author attempts to explain the range of forces and
events that may affect the future of policing. The books, authored by many, also explains the
events and forces that are likely to happen as well as the opportunities in the policing field. This
paper gives a review and response to chapter one of the book.

RESPONSE ESSAY WRITING ASSIGNMENT

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Introduction
The future of law enforcement requires high-end intelligence from the policymakers. The
book recognizes how difficult it is to forecast for the future. It uses weather as an example,
because one may leave for work in heavy clothes only for the sun to be scorching. The study of
forecast and forecast itself is characterized by many errors, but the future is an important aspect
of studying. It helps the law enforcement bodies to be vigilant of the operations, make calculated
moves that will prevent the occurrence of errors. The first chapter, which is the source of
response for this paper, provides an overview of developing forecasts and assessments of the
future. This response will also find and critique how the visions and forecasts of the law
enforcement future were made (Schafer, 2007).
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Anonymous
Excellent job

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