Body of a paper, 3-4 paragraphs with 5-7 sentences each, on dog inbreeding

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In this assignment, you will write three to four body paragraphs.The following requirements must be included in the assignment:

  • Body Paragraphs: You will construct three to four paragraphs comprised of five to seven sentences each. Each paragraph should be between 150-200 words. At a minimum, this portion of the paper should be around 450-600 words (for three to four paragraphs); a body section of this length will meet the minimum requirements of the assignment. The following components must be included in each body paragraph (in the following order).
    • Sentence 1: Point/reason sentence: This topic sentence will contain one of your reasons.
    • Sentence 2: Explanation: In this sentence, you provide information that further develops or explains Sentence 1.
    • Sentence 3: Illustration: This sentence introduces evidence that supports the reason that is presented in Sentence 1.
    • Sentence 4: Explanation of the illustration: Because the evidence does not necessarily stand on its own, you need to provide explanation so that the reader will understand how you interpreted the evidence to come to your reason.
    • Sentences 5-6: Second illustration and explanation (optional): You may choose to include a second piece of evidence that is then followed by an explanation.
    • Last Sentence: Transition: In this sentence, you will signal to the reader that you will be moving on to another point in the next paragraph. You do this to ease the movement from one point to another.
  • Be sure to include the introduction and literature review you have already created and revised.
  • Use APA conventions to cite and reference all sources used to support your argument.

Attached is the biliography that needs to be used, my introduction, and my lit review

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Running head: INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS 1 Asher, L., Diesel, G., Summers, J. F., McGreevy, P. D., & Collins, L. M. (2009). Inherited defects in pedigree dogs. Part 1: disorders related to breed standards. The Veterinary Journal, 182(3), 402-411. The journal talks more about the disorders that are associated with the pedigree dogs. The authors of the journal argue that the pedigree dogs tend to carry many negative trails that may not show up often. The dogs are associated with disorders that are carried from both sides of the parent. The authors give clear examples of the dogs which carry the disorders like the Pitbull. They argue about the aggressive nature of the dog whereby it can easily attack and kill anyone including the owner for absolutely no reason. The authors further argue that the aggressive dogs should not be inbred since they become even more aggressive. They also provide a justifiable rationale to support their argument. The journal is a credible source of information since the authors are experts in animal science and are PhD holders in the same field. They have carried out an extensive research while citing great examples to back up their arguments. Jansson, M., & Laikre, L. (2018). Pedigree data indicate rapid inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity within populations of native, traditional dog breeds of conservation concern. PloS one, 13(9), e0202849. Jansson and Laikre argue that when inbreeding of dogs is carried out rapidly, there is the likelihood of losing the natural breed. The continued mutation of the genes will cause the original breed to become extinct. According to the two authors, several breeds of the traditional dogs have been eliminated due to the inbreeding. The loss of the genetic diversity in the population of the dogs have caused people to come up with new breeds of dogs and the past breeds have become totally extinct. According to the authors, this should not happen. They also argue that the indigenous breeds were more tolerant to the diseases that affect dogs while the INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS 2 dogs that are born out of inbreeding are not able to withstand the tough conditions and diseases. The book is a credible source of information since it entails extensive research and can be very educative and informative to the writer. Leroy, G. (2011). Genetic diversity, inbreeding and breeding practices in dogs: results from pedigree analyses. The Veterinary Journal, 189(2), 177-182. In this journal, the author argues that inbreeding helps in eliminating the undesirable genetic characteristics from the dogs and maintain the desirable character traits. This happens since inbreeding helps in revealing the deleterious recessive alleles from several breeds of dogs. The recessive alleles are later eliminated through culling or using selective breeding. This helps to create a more desirable breed of a dog which has the required traits. The results also show that in some breeds, the recessive genes still exist which cause certain disorders in the crossbred dogs. The journal tries to explain the effects of inbreeding and other breeding practices according to the pedigree analysis that was carried out by the veterinary officer. The journal is credible because the author Dr. Leroy is a qualified medicine practitioner and a biologist who specializes with veterinary medicine. The book is a resourceful one for individuals who need to learn more about the dog breeds. Machiela, M. J., & Chanock, S. J. (2014). GWAS is going to the dogs. Genome biology, 15(3), 105. Dogs have been man’s best friend since time immemorial. Their loyalty to man has been noted and recognized effectively. The dogs out. of their loyalty have been genetically modified by man to form the breeds of dogs that man wants to have. The modifications have led to the various breeds of dogs that are existent today. The authors of the book claim that the GWAS survey that was carried out shows that dogs can carry several rare illnesses that are common to INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS 3 the humans too. The authors reported a multi-breed GWAS approach to study osteosarcoma, a primary bone malignancy that is also observed in children and adolescents. The same allele happens to exist in men and dogs too which makes them worth testing and studying. The book has a wide coverage on the GWAS survey which helps us to really understand the friendship that exists between men and dogs. Marsden, C. D., Ortega-Del Vecchyo, D., O’Brien, D. P., Taylor, J. F., Ramirez, O., Vilà, C., ... & Lohmueller, K. E. (2016). Bottlenecks and selective sweeps during domestication have increased deleterious genetic variation in dogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(1), 152-157. The authors explain that inbreeding helps in coming up with healthier breeds of dogs from the indigenous breeds. It also helps in improving the intelligence of the dogs. The authors of this book cite examples like the German shepherd which happen to be one of the most intelligent and loyal breeds of dogs. The dogs are a result of the inbreeding and they are some of the most friendly and loyal dogs. The authors of the book further argue that the dogs that have undergone the deleterious genetic variation are the best breeds of dogs to nature as pets and for domestication due to their kind and calm nature. The dogs are not hostile to the owners which makes them safe to hand around the kids. The book happens to be one of the best sources to get the information about the genetic variation in dogs since the authors have carried out extensive research on the same. INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS 4 Oberbauer, A. M., Belanger, J. M., Bellumori, T., Bannasch, D. L., & Famula, T. R. (2015). Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings. Canine genetics and epidemiology, 2(1), 9. The book discourages inbreeding because it helps in carrying on the genetic disorders that are from the original parents. The disorders that are passed on from the original parents can become more serious once they are mixed up with the disorders from the other breeds. This makes it more dangerous to host some of the dogs as pets since they can become aggressive and violent for no reason at all. The authors of the book give credible information and they explain ten disorders that are associated with the inbreeding of the dogs. They further argue that the inbreeding of the dogs with negative traits like extreme anger can lead to production of monsters from the dogs which is not the main intention of inbreeding these dogs. The journal is an informative one since the authors have carried out extensive research to explain all the points that are listed in the book. Oberbauer, A. M., Keller, G. G., & Famula, T. R. (2017). Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds. PloS one, 12(2), e0172918. The authors have carried out a wide research and discovered that inbreeding have reduced the prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia. This happens in 60 of the dog breeds currently. They suggest that continued inbreeding can help in reducing more problems that affect our dogs. The 60 breeds of dogs are clearly named in the journal and the authors have given more detailed information of the long-term problems that are brought to an end via inbreeding of the dogs. The authors also suggest that if more inbreeding is done on the dogs, there is the likelihood of reducing even more health-related problems that affect these dogs. The book is a INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS credible source of information on the problems that affect dogs and how inbreeding could help stop these problems. The authors of the book are also very informed including Oberbauer who has written several articles on the science of inbreeding. 5 Running head: DOG INBREEDING: ACCEPTABLE, OR NOT? DOG INBREEDING: ACCEPTABLE, OR NOT? Bryan Hamann Columbia Southern University 1 DOG INBREEDING: ACCEPTABLE, OR NOT? 2 Introduction Inbreeding is the term used to refer to the mating of closely related dogs, for example, sibling to sibling and father-daughter mating. Inbreeding has been used by breeders to transfer traits from one dog to the other successfully. Some exhibition dogs’ pedigree has provided proof that several forebears are closely related. For example, Fan Tee Cee a famous cat exhibited in the period 1960-1970 and continues to appear in several Siamese pedigrees. Dogs have been bred since ancient days to meet certain objectives including the development of perfect dog breeds regarding genetics and utility. People breed the dogs to get special trait dogs for police and military purposes, for game hunting, to guide the blind and companion pets. Society historically puts unique value on dogs of a specific color, size, sensitive qualities, and physical features. The high-quality dogs are on demand, and the competitions for trophies and high pedigrees also pushes for breeding. Controversy Leroy (2011) argues that inbreeding helps in eliminating the undesirable genetic characteristics from the dogs and maintain the desirable character traits. This happens since inbreeding helps in revealing the deleterious recessive alleles from several breeds of dogs. The recessive alleles are later eliminated through culling or using selective breeding. This helps to create a more desirable breed of a dog which has the required traits. The results also show that in some breeds, the recessive genes still exist which cause certain disorders in the crossbred dogs. While inbreeding of dogs has lots of benefits, there are lots of controversies surrounding the practice, both genetic and ethical. Asher et al., (2009) presents the argument that the pedigree dogs tend to carry many harmful trails that may not show up often. The dogs are associated with disorders that are transmitted from both sides of the parent. The authors prove that inbred dogs DOG INBREEDING: ACCEPTABLE, OR NOT? 3 show some unique negative traits like being overaggressive, which could lead to human fatalities or death. Jansson and Laikre (2018) from their study present the argument that when dogs are inbred rapidly and unprofessionally, there is the likelihood of losing the native breed. The continued mutation of the genes will cause the original breed to become extinct. Furthermore, several conventional dog breeds have been eliminated due to inbreeding. The loss of the genetic diversity in the dogs’ population makes breeders want to create new dog breeds. The older breeds of dogs are also getting extinct. The authors suggest that it is wrong to inbreed dogs since it leads to loos of the older breed dogs. They also argue that the indigenous dog breeds were more tolerant to dog diseases while the inbred dogs are more vulnerable to such diseases hence more expensive to maintain or keep as pets. Machiela and Chanock (2014) claim that the GWAS survey is proof that dogs can carry several rare illnesses that are common to the humans too. Their report showed that osteosarcoma, a primary bone malignancy that is also observed in children and adolescents, happens to exist in men and dogs too which makes them worth testing and studying. Thesis Statement Excessive inbreeding is not only unethical but possess a threat to human beings; thus, it should be regulated to protect the dogs and humans. DOG INBREEDING: ACCEPTABLE, OR NOT? References Asher, L., Diesel, G., Summers, J. F., McGreevy, P. D., & Collins, L. M. (2009). Inherited defects in pedigree dogs. Part 1: disorders related to breed standards. The Veterinary Journal, 182(3), 402-411. Jansson, M., & Laikre, L. (2018). Pedigree data indicate rapid inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity within populations of native, traditional dog breeds of conservation concern. PloS one, 13(9), e0202849. Leroy, G. (2011). Genetic diversity, inbreeding and breeding practices in dogs: results from pedigree analyses. The Veterinary Journal, 189(2), 177-182. Machiela, M. J., & Chanock, S. J. (2014). GWAS is going to the dogs. Genome biology, 15(3), 105. 4 Running head: INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS Inbreeding within Dogs Bryan Hamann Columbia Southern University 1 INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS 2 Pros and Cons of Dog Inbreeding Introduction Inbreeding in dogs influences behavior size and shape of dogs. Inbreeding in dogs is the mating of closely related offspring of the dog. It is regarded as a significant way of combining traits in a breed and involves mating mother and son, father and daughter, or the siblings. The inbreeding of dogs is advantageous because it introduces fresh genes into the gene pool thereby increasing the vigor of the breed by enhancing the traits. However, inbreeding can also pose potential risks to the offspring because it also transmits undesirable traits which when increases results to the loss of vigor in the breed. Dog breeding, in some instances, is conducted to prevent the extinction of certain dog characteristics or create a completely new breed that can serve a purpose. Good and bad traits are, however, still transmitted through the mating, but the ultimate purpose of the breeder is to increase the homozygosis of the genetic pool in the dogs. The controversy surrounding dog breeding is the health risks associated with the excessive breeding of the dogs. A typical case of excessive breeding is the Cavalier King Charles breed, where the purpose is to reduce the size of the dog. Unfortunately, the reduction of size also leads to the reduction in the size of the skull which becomes too small for the brain. This small size of the skull causes neurological conditions for the dog. While the advantage is the small size of the dog, the reduced cranial capacity of the dog is a threat to humans as such dogs can attack people for no reason, including their owner, due to increased aggression. While the inbreeding of dogs is aimed at improving the traits and characteristics of a breed, it poses health concerns for the inbred dogs and human beings. INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS 3 Literature Review Preface This literature is a review of the historical background of breeding human rearing of dogs. Various factors must have forced humans to begin the exercise of breeding dogs and form part of major health concerns of the exercise. Various experts, researchers, and authors have written to either support or advocate against the exercise of dog breeding for various reasons. Those in support for the breeding of dogs have cited the advantaged associated with the breeding, while authors and researchers who do not support the exercise highlight the bad side of breeding dogs. The review systematically presents evidence from the claim’s health risks associated with breeding and the benefits that accrue when dogs are bred. Literature Review Body For thousands of years, dogs have been known to be the closest friend of man. The early man used dogs for hunting and security. Dog breeding began in the mid-19th century after the kennel clubs and breed clubs were developed. Many dog breeds were developed during this time as the dog breeding exercise became more rigorous. The dog breeding as known today is a recent invention that began as a hobby but gained economic and social value. Currently, there are over 400 different breeds of dogs recognized by the kennel club. According to Leroy, inbreeding of dogs is advantageous because it helps in eliminating the undesirable genetic characteristic and traits in dogs and retain the desirable traits. The ‘sieving’ of undesirable traits prevents the bad traits from being carried to the next generation offspring (Leroy, 2011). Through inbreeding, the recessive genes can be detected and eliminated to create a healthy breed of dogs. The recessive genes are the cause of many disorders in dogs if they are left to exist. This helps in preventing the spread of disorders across a certain pedigree. INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS 4 Since dogs have been useful animals to man since time immemorial, genetic modification of the breed of dogs aims at producing the breeds that dog owners want to serve specific purposes. In scientific studies, bred dogs have been used to study diseases because the gene alleles of dogs carry rare illnesses that are also common to human beings. Research studies have revealed that the technology has been used to study the diseases and try to establish its cause and treatment without having to involve human specimen in the studies. An example of the rare illness shared by dog and man is the osteosarcoma, which is a bone disorder that affects children and adolescents. The allelic gene is said to be shared by dogs and men, and is used in studies to reveal treatment of the disease (Machiela & Chanock, S2014). The inbreeding of dogs has not only been used to improve the health of dogs, but also their intelligence. The German shepherd breed is known to be one of the most loyal and intelligent breeds of dogs. These dogs are usually the most friendly and safe for their owners because of their degree of intelligence (Marsden et al., 2016). These dogs have been known to play significant roles as sniffer dogs in critical security matters. Another advantage of the inbreeding of dogs is the reduction of the hip and elbow dyspepsia that is a much prevalent condition in dogs (Oberbauer et al., 2015). Continued inbreeding will help curb the condition in the dog’s generation. The disadvantages associated with pedigree dogs might be a stumbling block to the exercise of breeding. Pedigree dogs are said to carry a variety of negative genes that are associated with some diseases. Their negative traits are thought to be very risky because they might not reveal themselves in the dog so often (Asher et al., 2009). The Pitbull, for instance, is said to be very aggressive as it can easily attack people for no reason including the owner. The can make it dangerous to use some of the inbred dogs as pets because of the excessive anger caused by the gene disorders. The intention of inbreeding of dogs is not to generate creatures that INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS would resemble monsters, but having dogs that will be useful to man (Oberbauer et al., 2015). It is advisable not to breed aggressive dogs because they become even more aggressive as the pedigree extends down. The rapid inbreeding of dogs is also said to pose risks of losing the natural breed: the original breed can become extinct due to the continued mutation of the genes by inbreeding. The exercise causes a loss in genetic diversity of the dog species (Jansson & Laikre, 2018). It may also be surprising to learn that the indigenous breed of dogs is usually more tolerant to diseases as compared to the inbred type of dogs. Having many inbred dogs in the population could pose difficulties in dog rearing because of the easy spread of diseases and the reduction of their population due to deaths. Literature Review Conclusion The inbreeding of dogs is, indeed, aimed at improving the traits and characteristics of a breed but poses health concerns for the inbred dogs and human beings. The exercise has been associated with various health conditions which require proper assessment before any dog is inbred. The intention for inbreeding of the dogs should be examined before a dog can be inbred. Because of the many disadvantages linked to the inbreeding exercise, the person intending to breed dogs should be aware of the consequences and should state clearly their purpose for breeding so that they can plan on how to deal with the risks. 5 INBREEDING WITHIN DOGS 6 References Asher, L., Diesel, G., Summers, J. F., McGreevy, P. D., & Collins, L. M. (2009). Inherited defects in pedigree dogs. Part 1: disorders related to breed standards. The Veterinary Journal, 182(3), 402-411. Jansson, M., & Laikre, L. (2018). Pedigree data indicate rapid inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity within populations of native, traditional dog breeds of conservation concern ...
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