Development Case Study

timer Asked: Oct 22nd, 2018
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Question Description

Assessment Instructions

To prepare for this assessment, view the case study Timothy's Story, linked in the Resources under the Required Resources heading.

Drawing on what you learned about Timothy in the multimedia presentation and on your knowledge of child development, write a 4–6 page analysis of Timothy's situation and the possibilities for intervention and improvement in his life. In your analysis, include the following:

  1. Provide a brief recap of the case.
  2. Summarize attachment theory, and discuss Timothy's attachment style to a parent or caregiver. Provide specific examples from the case to support your position.
  3. Describe how Timothy's attachment to his parents will affect his current and later physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Provide examples from each childhood stage.
  4. Discuss factors that affect attachment security (secure and insecure). Apply Bronfenbrenner's ecological model to discuss how contextual and ecological factors such as poverty, education, the environment of the home, and poor quality childcare affect child development.
  5. Describe disordered attachment and treatments available. Use the Capella library to find at least two peer-reviewed articles that focus on disordered attachments and their treatment.
  6. Identify a strategy at each stage of Timothy's development (early years, elementary years, and adolescence) that would help promote secure attachment.

You are urged to use Capella University's Writing Center to help you develop clear and effective writing. Through the Writing Center, you will be able to receive feedback on your writing, use writing resources, discover new writing strategies, and explore different ways to draft, revise, edit, and proofread your own work.

If you wish, you may use the APA Paper Template, linked in the Resources, to complete your assessment.

Additional Requirements
  • Written communication: Ensure that your writing is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  • APA formatting: Format your paper according to APA style.
  • Length: Write 4–6 typed and double-spaced pages.
  • Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
  • Resources: Include at least two peer-reviewed articles from the Capella University Library.

Required Resource

Click the link to view the following multimedia piece, which is required for the assessment:


Suggested Resources

The resources provided here are optional and support the assessment. They provide helpful information about the topics. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The PSYC-FP2700 – Child Development Library Guide can help direct your research. The Supplemental Resources and Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your courseroom, provide additional resources to help support you.

Attachment Theory
  • Berk, L. E., & Meyers, A. B. (2016). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Available from the bookstore.
    • Chapter 7, "Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood," pages 244–281.
      • This chapter provides information about attachment and attachment security.
Attachment Security and Development
  • FMG Video.
    • This video connects attachment to the overall development process.
      • This video was purchased through Films Media Group for use in this Capella Course.
  • Ildiz, G. I., & Ahmetoglu, E. (2016). An examination of attachment status of preschool children. International Education Studies, 9(12), 232–243.
    • This article discusses the impact of attachment on development in an education setting.
Bronfenbrenner's Model

For the assessment you will apply the model to explain the impacts of contextual and ecological factors on child development.

Disordered Attachment and Treatment

These articles are examples of current research on disordered attachments and their treatment. Use the Capella Library or Google Scholar to search for additional peer-reviewed articles that can be referenced as required in the assessment.

Strategies to Promote Secure Attachment

These articles present research on strategies to promote attachment. Use the Capella Library to search for other examples of research on attachment-promotion strategies for each stage of development of the case study subject.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: APA STYLE PAPER TEMPLATE 1 The instructional and sample text in this template is informational. After reading the information, please delete it, and use the document as a template for your own paper. To keep the correct format, edit the running head, cover page, headings, and reference list with your own information, and add your own body text. Save this template in a file for future use and information. The running head is an abbreviated title of the paper. The running head is located at the top of pages of a manuscript or published article to identify the article for readers. The running head should be a maximum of 50 characters, counting letters, punctuation, and spaces between words. The words "Running head" are on the cover page but not on the rest of the document. The running head title is all capital letters. Page 1 begins on the cover page. The entire document should be double-spaced, have 1-inch margins on all sides, and use 12 point Times New Roman font. Full Title of Paper Learner's Full Name Course Title Assignment Title Capella University Month, Year APA STYLE PAPER TEMPLATE 2 Abstract (As this section is optional, check with your instructor.) An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of a paper. It allows readers to quickly review the key elements of a paper without having to read the entire document. This can be helpful for readers who are searching for specific information and may be reviewing many documents. The abstract may be one of the most important paragraphs in a paper because readers often decide if they will read the document based on information in the abstract. An abstract may not be required in some academic papers; however, it can still be an effective method of gaining the reader's attention. For example, an abstract will not be required for Capella's first course, PSYC3002. The following sentences serve as an example of what could be composed as an abstract for this paper: The basic elements of APA style will be reviewed, including formatting of an APA style paper, in-text citations, and a reference list. Additional information will address the components of an introduction, how to write effective paragraphs using the MEAL plan, and elements of a summary and conclusion section of a paper. APA STYLE PAPER TEMPLATE 3 APA Style Paper Template: A Resource for Academic Writing Please change the titles in this document to fit your paper. APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. APA style is used when writing papers in the psychology programs offered at Capella University. This document serves as an APA style template for learners to use when writing their own papers, as well as a resource containing valuable information that can be used when writing academic papers. For more information on APA style, learners can refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010a). The author demonstrates in the first section of this paper how an introduction effectively introduces the reader to the topic of the paper. In APA style, an introduction never gets a heading. For example, this section did not begin with a heading titled "Introduction," similar to the following section, which is titled "Writing an Effective Introduction." The following section will explain in greater detail a model that can be used to effectively write an introduction in an academic paper. The remaining sections of the paper will continue to address APA style and effective writing concepts including section headings, organizing information, the MEAL plan, the conclusion, and the reference list. Writing an Effective Introduction An effective introduction often consists of four main components including (a) the position statement, thesis, or hypothesis, which describes the author's main position; (b) the purpose, which outlines the objective of the paper; (c) the background, which is general information that is needed to understand the content of the paper; and (d) the approach, which is the process or methodology the author uses to achieve the purpose of the paper. This information APA STYLE PAPER TEMPLATE 4 will help readers understand what will be discussed in the paper. It can also serve as a tool to grab the reader's attention. Authors may choose to briefly reference sources that will be identified later on in the paper as in this example (American Psychological Association, 2010a; American Psychological Association, 2010b; Walker, 2008). In an introduction, the writer will often present something of interest to capture the reader's attention and introduce the issue. Adding an obvious statement of purpose helps the reader know what to expect, while helping the writer to focus and stay on task. For example, this paper will address several components necessary to effectively write an academic paper including (a) how to write an introduction, (b) how to write effective paragraphs using the MEAL plan, and (c) how to properly use APA style. Level One Section Heading is Centered, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase Using section headings can be an effective method of organizing an academic paper. The section headings should not be confused with the running head, which is a different concept described in the cover page of this document. Section headings are not required according to APA style; however, they can significantly improve the quality of a paper. This is accomplished because section headings help both the reader and the author. Level Two Section Heading is Flush Left, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase The heading style recommended by APA consists of five levels (American Psychological Association, 2010a, p. 62). This document contains two levels to demonstrate how headings are structured according to APA style. Immediately before the previous paragraph, a Level 1 heading was used. That section heading describes how a Level 1 heading should be written, which is centered, bold, and using uppercase and lowercase letters. For another example, see the section heading "Writing an Effective Introduction" on page 3 of this document. The heading is APA STYLE PAPER TEMPLATE 5 centered, bold, and uses uppercase and lowercase letters (compared to all uppercase in the running head at the top of each page). If used properly, section headings can significantly contribute to the quality of a paper by helping the reader who wants to understand the information in the document, and the author who desires to effectively describe the information in the document. Section Headings Help the Reader Section headings serve multiple purposes including (a) helping readers understand what is being addressed in each section, (b) breaking up text to help readers maintain an interest in the paper, and (c) helping readers choose what they want to read. For example, if the reader of this document wants to learn more about writing an effective introduction, the previous section heading clearly states that is where information can be found. When subtopics are needed to explain concepts in greater detail, different levels of headings are used according to APA style. Section Headings Help the Author Section headings do not only help the reader, they help the author organize the document during the writing process. Section headings can be used to arrange topics in a logical order, and they can help an author manage the length of the paper. In addition to an effective introduction and the use of section headings, each paragraph of an academic paper can be written in a manner that helps the reader stay engaged. Capella University promotes the use of the MEAL plan to serve this purpose. The MEAL Plan The MEAL plan is a model used by Capella University to help learners effectively compose academic discussions and papers. Each component of the MEAL plan is critical to writing an effective paragraph. The acronym MEAL is based on four components of a paragraph APA STYLE PAPER TEMPLATE 6 (M = Main point, E = Evidence or Example, A = Analysis, and L = Link). The following section includes a detailed description and examples of each component of the MEAL plan. When writing the content sections of an academic paper (as opposed to the introduction or conclusion sections), the MEAL plan can be an effective model for designing each paragraph. A paragraph begins with a description of the main point, which is represented by the letter "M" of the MEAL plan. For example, the first sentence of this paragraph clearly states the main point is a discussion of the MEAL plan. Once the main point has been made, evidence and examples can be provided. The second component of a paragraph contains evidence or examples, which is represented by the letter "E" in the MEAL plan. An example of this component of the MEAL plan is actually (and ironically) this sentence, which provides an example of an example. Evidence can be in the form of expert opinions from research. For example, evidence shows that plagiarism can occur even when it is not intended if sources are not properly cited (Marsh, Landau, & Hicks, 1997; Walker, 2008). The previous sentence provides evidence supporting why evidence is used in a paragraph. Analysis, which is represented by the letter "A" of the MEAL plan, should be based on the author's interpretation of the evidence. An effective analysis might include a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments, as well as the author's interpretations of the evidence and examples. If a quote is used, the author will likely provide an analysis of the quote and the specific point it makes for the author's position. Without an analysis, the reader might not understand why the author discussed the information that the reader just read. For example, the previous sentence was an analysis by the author of why an analysis is performed when writing paragraphs in academic papers. APA STYLE PAPER TEMPLATE 7 Even with the first three elements of the MEAL plan, it would not be complete without the final component. The letter "L" of the MEAL plan refers to information that "links" the current and the subsequent paragraphs. The link helps the reader understand what will be discussed in the next paragraph. It summarizes the author's reasoning and shows how the paragraph fits together and leads (that is, links) into the next section of the paper. For example, this sentence might explain that once the MEAL plan has been effectively used when writing the body of an academic paper, the final section is the summary and conclusion section. Summary and Conclusion A summary and conclusion section, which can also be the discussion section of an APA style paper, is the final opportunity for the author to make a lasting impression on the reader. The author can begin by restating opinions or positions and summarizing the most important points that have been presented in the paper. For example, this paper was written to demonstrate to readers how to effectively use APA style when writing academic papers. Various components of an APA style paper that were discussed or displayed in the form of examples include a running head, title page, introduction section, levels of section headings and their use, in-text citations, the MEAL plan, a conclusion, and the reference list. APA STYLE PAPER TEMPLATE 8 References American Psychological Association. (2010a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association. (2010b). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from Marsh, R. L., Landau, J. D., & Hicks, J. L. (1997). Contributions of inadequate source monitoring to unconscious plagiarism during idea generation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23(4), 886–897. doi: 10.1037/02787393.23.4.886 Walker, A. L. (2008). Preventing unintentional plagiarism: A method for strengthening paraphrasing skills. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(4), 387–395. Retrieved from Always begin a reference list on a new page. Use a hanging indent after the first line of each reference. The reference list is in alphabetical order by first author’s last name. A reference list only contains sources that are cited in the body of the paper, and all sources cited in the body of the paper must be contained in the reference list. The reference list above contains an example of how to cite a source when two documents are written in the same year by the same author. The year is also displayed using this method for the corresponding in-text citations as in the next sentence. The author of the first citation (American Psychological Association, 2010a) is also the publisher, therefore, the word "Author" is used in place of the publisher's name. When a digital object identifier (DOI) is available for a journal article, it should be placed at the end of the citation. If a DOI is not available, a uniform resource locator (URL) should be used. The Marsh, Landau, and Hicks (1997) reference is an example of how to cite a source using a DOI. The Walker (2008) reference is an example of how to cite a source using a URL. 10/22/2018 Development Case Study Scoring Guide Development Case Study Scoring Guide CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED Summarize attachment theory as it relates to the case. Does not summarize attachment theory as it relates to the case. Defines attachment theory, but does not summarize it as it relates to the case. Summarizes attachment theory as it relates to the case. Summarizes attachment theory as it relates to the case, providing examples from the case and scholarly research. Describe how attachment security will affect current and future physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Does not identify how attachment security will affect current and future physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Identifies that attachment security will affect current and future physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, but does not detail how. Describes how attachment security will affect current and future physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Describes how attachment security will affect current and future physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, providing examples from the case and scholarly research. Apply Bronfenbrenner's ecological model to factors that affect attachment security. Does not identify factors that affect attachment security or apply Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Identifies some factors that affect attachment security, but does not apply Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Applies Bronfenbrenner's ecological model to factors that affect attachment security. Applies Bronfenbrenner's ecological model to factors that affect attachment security, providing examples from the case and scholarly research. Describe disordered attachment and treatment. Does not define disordered attachment and treatment. Defines disordered attachment and treatment. Describes disordered attachment and treatment. Describes disordered attachment and treatment, providing examples from the case and scholarly research. Summarize strategies that help promote secure attachment. Does not identify strategies that help promote secure attachment. Identifies strategies, but is not clear about how the strategies promote secure attachment. Summarizes strategies that help promote secure attachment. Summarize strategies that help promote secure attachment, providing examples from the case and scholarly research. Apply scholarly research findings to topics in childhood education. Does not identify scholarly research findings for topics in childhood education. Identifies scholarly and non-scholarly research, but fails to apply it appropriately to the topic. Applies scholarly research findings to topics in childhood education. Applies scholarly research findings to topics in childhood education, showing a clear understanding of the connection between the research and child development. Write coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a psychology professional. Writing does not support a central idea and does not use correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a psychology professional. Writing supports an idea but is inconsistent and contains major errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics. Writing coherently supports a central idea with few errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics. Writing is coherent, using evidence to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a psychology professional. Use APA format and style. Does not use APA format and style. Uses APA format and style but inconsistently and with errors. Uses APA format and style consistently and with few errors. Uses correct APA format and style consistently and with no errors. 1/1 10/22/2018 Transcript Pri nt Cr edits TIMOTHY'S STORY EARLY YEARS At 26 months, Timothy was referred to child services for evaluation because he was "out of control." His parents, Alice and Steve, referred to him as a "holy terror." According to the parents, when Timothy was told "no," he threw himself on the oor kicking and screaming and he would hit and kick any adults when they approached. When Timothy became very upset he would bang his head on the oor and bite himself. HOME LIFE History reveals considerable violence at home between Alice and Steve which Timothy often witnesses. Steve frequently found himself in between jobs. His mother worked long, overnight shifts for a minimum wage salary. Both parents regularly used spanking as method of discipline. DAYCARE Timothy spent 10 hours per day at an illegal daycare home where one caregiver was responsible for 12 children all under the age of four. The caregiver used spanking to discipline Timothy and the other children in her care. Timothy's mother often picked in a soiled pamper and with a paci er in his mouth. The parents had some concerns about the Timothy's childcare—including unsanitary conditions, and snacks consisting of potato chips and cookies; they did not believe they had any choice however. The high-quality care centers in their area are too expensive. ELEMENTARY YEARS At age six, Timothy was enrolled in a rst-grade public school program. He never attended any formal preschool or kindergarten program. Timothy's teacher reported that he had di culty making friends and was often seen playing on his own during recess. He rarely came to school prepared with the needed supplies or with his homework completed. Timothy occasionally had an angry, frustrated reaction to his teacher and often ignored the classroom rules. ADOLESCENCE At age 11, Timothy was held back from being promoted to sixth grade. His academics were far below what would be expected for a fth-grade student and he struggled with both reading and writing. Timothy had few friends and was suspended brie y for hitting another student over a minor disagreement. CREDITS Subject Matter Expert: Elizabeth Matthews Interactive Design: Melissa Dunn Instructional Design: Laura Badaracco Amend 1/2 10/22/2018 Transcript Project Manager: Alan Campbell Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. 2/2 ...
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Case on Development
Capella University
Month, Year



From the moment a child is born, a lifelong process of mutual adaptation between them
and their parents, caregivers, and the wider social environment, is initiated. The quality
attachment is a predictor of the child’s emotional and social outcome (Berk & Meyers, 2016). In
this paper, Timothy’s story, a child with problems in his development and attachment will be
discussed and analyzed. The attachment theory will be briefly described with a reflection on
Timothy's attachment style. Various factors affecting attachment security will also be discussed
with the application of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. Also, disordered attachment and the
various treatments available and strategies for promoting secure attachment will be identified.
The importance of attachment in various stages of a child's development cannot be undermined;
this is evident from the series of problems in Timothy's story which started from the early life,
home life, background, daycare, elementary years, and later in adolescence.
Case Summary
The case is about Timothy, who at 26months was referred to child services to undergo
evaluations as he was out of control. Again, history reveals that he used to witnesses violence at
home involving his parents, Alice and Steve. The parents had issues with their jobs and mostly
used the spanking method to discipline Timothy. Besides, he used to spend ten hours in an illegal
daycare with one caregiver taking care of twelve kids all below four years of age. The caregiver
also uses the spanking method in disciplining Timothy. Later, he joined a first-grade public
school program at age six, having attended no pre-school program. His teacher reported that he
was having difficulties in making friends and loved playing alone. Timothy never had his
homework done, was always unprepared for school, was occasionally angry, and ignored the



classroom rules. At adolescence stage, in age 11, he was not promoted to sixth grade because of
poor academic performance; he had few friends and was violent at school causing him a
Attachment Theory and Timothy’s Attachment Style
The attachment theory is in the area of developmental psychology and postulates that all
humans are born with a need to establish a close emotional bond with their caregiver, and this
bond develops during the first six months from birth if the caregiver is properly responsive (Berk
& Meyers, 2016). The theory, which is develope...

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