biology101 can you finish all the following attachment files?

Anonymous
timer Asked: Oct 22nd, 2018
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Question description

This class if for beginers so i don't expect you to make alot of effort to answer in depth for these questions except for the hypothesis please be careful and pay attention to the questions as im going to make presentation about it.

So you have to answer these questions that attached in the file.

and answer these questions

Questions require maximum four sentences

1-

Vaccines have become a divisive topic as of late with the rise of the anti-vaccination movement. Keeping it focused on CIVIL discourse, what is your stance on vaccination? Do you vaccinate yourself with the flu vaccine every year? Have you or will you vaccinate your children?

2- Microorganisms tend to get a bad rap because the most famous species that we hear about the most are those that cause infection. Prior to taking this course, did you know you were covered in microorganisms inside and out? Regardless, has your perspective on our bacterial brethren changed at all after learning what you have in this unit?

3-There are countless fad diets and cleanses out there that claim they are the remedy for everything from obesity to depression. Have you ever followed a strict diet or cleanse regimen? Why did you do so? What was the regimen based on and how does that align with what you've learned in this module?

4-There are countless fad diets and cleanses out there that claim they are the remedy for everything from obesity to depression. Have you ever followed a strict diet or cleanse regimen? Why did you do so? What was the regimen based on and how does that align with what you've learned in this module?

5-Think about your energy usage during the course of completing this module. Has your usage changed in anyway? If so, why and how? If not, why not?

6-What piece of information about energy was the most interesting or life changing in this module and why?

7-Which alternative energy are you most likely to adopt and why? (You might also explain this by choosing to explain why not to some of the others.)

Designing a Hypothesis-Driven Experiment Introduction This self-designed laboratory experience focuses on applying the scientific method, which is a careful approach that scientists use to ask and answer specific questions. We are setting up an experiment that will run for several weeks using a method of plant growth known as hydroponics. This elegant yet simple method allow plants to grow without soil thereby allowing tight control over the conditions in which the plant is grown. More complex hydroponics systems are one theorized way food production can be amplified for our growing human population. It has also shown promise in producing food in space! One structured experiment you will be running within this lab is investigating the effect of pH on plant growth. For plants grown in soil, soil pH can vary from place to place and different species of plants vary in their pH preferences. Natural soil pH depends on the parent rock material from which it was formed and processes like climate. Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. Acidic soils are considered to have a 5.0 or lower pH value whereas 10.0 or above is considered a strong basic or alkaline soil. The pH of soil affects the solubility of nutrients in soil water and thus it affects the amount of nutrients available for plant uptake. Different nutrients are available under differing pH conditions. In this part of the experiment we will look at the effect of pH on the germination and growth rate your plants in order to determine the range of pH tolerance for the plant. Acidic or basic water will be used in order to stimulate acidity or alkalinity in soil. The final portion of the lab is completely defined by you. You will come up with experimental conditions to investigate a question of your choice. There are countless questions you could investigate with this experiment. Make it your own! 1 Overall Timeline (for optimal, 5 week experiment) 4-5 Days before starting experiment – Put in Amazon order and acquire supplies. Day 1 – Set up seeds for germination. Day 7 – Take down germination and sprout data – Prepare solutions and transfer seedlings to hydroponics system Day 7 to ~32 – Take image of hydroponics system every other day. Wrapping up (~3-4 days) – Compiling images and data. Drawing conclusions. 2 Materials List On Amazon.com Purchase List 3 pH Test Strips Seeds (marigold, radish, OR bean) 6 Ball pint mason jars with widemouth top Hydrofarm Net Cups Litmus Paper Hydroponics Fertilizer LED Grow Light Hydrokorrels Hydroponics Expanded Clay Grow Rocks Household Items You Must Provide 6 small water-tight containers (for seed germination) Acetic Acid (White Vinegar) Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) Ruler Permanent Marker Paper Towel Sheets Tweezers Scissors Tin foil Any other components you’d like to add for your part of the experiment. Helpful conversions: 3 Part I – The Hypothesis In your experiment, you will be tasked with growing plants in various conditions. You will have 6 mason jars with which to work: 2 jars will be the control, 1 jar will test low pH, 1 jar will test high pH, and the final two jars will be used to test conditions of your design. Take some time in coming up with your experimental conditions. Think carefully and do a little research on the topics that come to mind. You’ll need to provide rationale for why you chose the experimental conditions that you chose for your website. Answer the questions below: 1. What are you going to change about the nutrient solution? In your experiment, this is called your independent variable. 2. How are you going to measure how your plants respond to the altered conditions? List at least three possibilities. All three must be quantitative (be expressed as numbers). In other words, you can’t simply say the control plants will be greener or bigger, you need to be more specific. You need something about the plant that you can easily measure. These are called your dependent variables. 3. State your hypothesis for the experiment you’re proposing. The hypothesis must be one complete sentence, and it must take the form of “If ______________, then ________________.” 4 Phase II: Implementing Your Experiment Part II – Getting Going: Seed Germination 1. Use tape and a permanent marker to label six small, water-tight containers (with transparent lids/covers). Labels should include control (2x), low pH, high pH, and enough information on your experimental conditions to keep them straight. 2. Carefully cut three small circles from the paper towel sheets. The circles should comfortably fit within the bottom of the container. 3. Place the circles in the water-tight containers and wet them with approximately 2 mL of water. We’ll be using water to get our seeds growing, then the hydroponics solutions in the mason jars will provide the rest of the water and nutrients necessary for growth. 4. Arrange 10 seeds on each paper towel in each container. Make sure the seeds have space and are not touching. Then put the cover on the container. 5. Place the containers under your grow light. Use the timer that came with your lamp to have the lamp on for 12 hours out of the day and off for the other 12. Be sure to keep the paper towels moist for the length of the experiment. 6. Observe the seeds for seven days. Take pictures of the seeds every other day. On the seventh day of the experiment, record the number of seeds that have germinated (put a root out) below in Table 1. Also measure the length in cm of each seed sprout (from root tip to shoot tip) and calculate the average for each given condition. Record those averages here. Container Control 1 Control 2 Low pH High pH Experimental 1 Experimental 2 Seeds Germinated Average Length of Sprout Table 1: Seed Germination 5 Part III – Mixing Solutions 1. As stated above, you’ll be working with 6 mason jars – 2 control jars, 1 low pH jar, 1 high pH jar, and 2 experimental jars. “Scaled” recipes for these solutions can be found in the table below. USE THESE SCALED RECIPES TO CALCULATE HOW MUCH TO MAKE TO FILL THE MASON JAR. For your Experimental jars, you don’t have to know how much of each component would go into a liter of liquid, BUT you do need to keep track of the amounts (ml, teaspoons, grams, oz, etc) of each component that go into your jar. When thinking of what to add to your experimental jars, consider fertilizer the base. In other words, if you’re wondering if some component “can support growth”, don’t add fertilizer. But if you’re wondering if some component “will kill” plants, add the fertilizer plus that component. 2. Take the pH of every solution using litmus paper. Take a picture of the litmus paper and write the pH down. Control Jars (2x) Component Fertilizer Water Amount for 1 liter 4 ml 996 ml Amount for 380 ml pH:_______________ Low pH Component Fertilizer White Vinegar Water Amount for 1 liter 4 ml 10 ml 986 ml Amount for 380 ml pH:_______________ High pH Component Fertilizer Baking Soda Water Amount for 1 liter 4 ml 10 grams 996 ml Amount for 380 ml pH:_______________ Experimental 1 Component Amount for 1 liter X X X X Amount for 380 ml **If you don’t have kitchen utensils that can measure milliliters or grams, convert these measurements to units found in standard kitchen utensils. pH:_______________ Experimental 2 Component Amount for 1 liter X X X X Amount for 380 ml pH:_______________ 6 Part IV – Assembling the Hydroponic System 1. Once you have mixed your solutions described in Part III, pour those solutions into the LABELED mason jars. Do not overfill the jars – keep in mind that you’ll be putting net pots with clay rocks in the jars. Be sure to keep your solutions straight. You’ll label the jars after covering them in tin foil (below). 2. Cap each jar and invert it a few times to mix the solution up. 3. Un-skrew the cap, take out the metal seal, and screw the threaded ring back on. Retrieve a net pot and gently place it in the hole left by the seal to test that it fits. It should rest with about 1/3-1/2 of the net pot immersed in the nutrient solution. 4. Remove the net pot from the jar and fill it with expanded clay rocks. 5. Gently take seedlings from your germination containers and place them in the net pot with clay rocks. Try to make sure the roots hang down as far as possible. Know that the clay rocks will soak up some water, so the roots do NOT need to be making direct contact with the liquid if your jar at this point. Place 8 seedlings in each pot. 6. Place the net pot in the mason jar as you did before. Check to see if the roots of the seedlings are touching the water. 7. While the plants grow, we need to prevent algae and other photosynthetic microorganisms from growing in our growth media. To discourage their growth, grab a large section of tin foil, and cover the outside of your jar. 8. Label your jars using masking tape. 9. When finished, carefully place the completed systems underneath your grow light. 10. Plug your grow light into the outlet timer. Set your outlet timer to give your plants 8 hours of light. Try to coordinate that part of the cycle with the light hours of the day. It sounds counterintuitive, but plants do need some darkness to stay healthy. They have a circadian rhythm much like our own that requires they “rest” (slow down photosynthesis for a little while). 11. Plug the outlet timer into an outlet. 12. Take an image of your set up. Remember the vantage point from which the image was taken. You’ll be asked to take images every other day from that same spot. 7 Part V – Documenting Observations 1. Over the course of 3 weeks (or until the day that is a week before the end of the course), take an image of the hydroponics set up every other day. Try to do it from the same vantage point every time. Import these images into a Google Slides file. 2. As time passes, the plants should grow and draw water up and out of the mason jar. Eventually, you’ll have plant roots that are not making contact with the water and are simply sitting in air (see right). THAT’S OK. Plants roots need a bit of exposure to air. 3. Refer back to Part I in which you came up with 3 possible ways to measure how your plants responded to the different conditions. Choose 1 measurement and provide your reason for choosing it. Record this reason in a Google Sheets file. Then collect your measurements and record them in the same file under a well-labeled heading. 4. Process your data. Find an average for the plants in each condition and compare it to that of the controls. Write out what you observe when you make these comparisons. 5. Write out your conclusions. Take the observations you just made and make a statement about each condition you’ve analyzed. 6. Create a graph based on the data you’ve collected for each condition. 8
https://www.fullbloomhydroponics.net/hydroponic-systems-101/ Read tough this website to answer the following questions https://www.fullbloomhydroponics.net/hydroponic-systems-101/ Also https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5091364/ Designing a Hydroponics Website Website Content (40 points) Each section is scored based on the points within the parentheses. What is Hydroponics? Research the method of hydroponics. Present 2-3 paragraphs of background information based on what you find. Include the following: • A brief history of hydroponics (3-4 sentences) • A summary of applications (3-4 sentences) Score (5):______________ Question, Rationale, and Hypothesis – Based on Part I of the lab protocol This page will consist of information regarding your question generation, rationale, and hypothesis. Answer the following questions on this page: • Why did you choose the experimental conditions that you did? (4-5 sentences) • What are your independent and dependent variables? Be specific. Refer to your protocol. • What is your hypothesis for the outcome of your experiment? Include the “If, then” statement you constructed in your protocol. Elaborate on this statement to include how you predict your experimental jars will perform compared to your controls. (5-6 sentences) Score (10):______________ Materials and Methods – Based on Part III of the lab protocol This section of your website will contain the amounts of the different components that were added to each jar. Include the following: • Tables like those found in your protocol showing the amounts of each component that went into each jar. • Unit labels for each amount Score (5):______________ Results and Conclusions – Based on Parts II, IV, and V of the lab protocol Here you will show the images and data you’ve collected from your germination and hydroponics experiments. Include the following: • Your germination images cropped and compiled into a single figure like the one posted on Blackboard. Label each image with the day of the experiment it was taken. • Your hydroponics images cropped and compiled into a single figure like the one posted on Blackboard. Label each image with the day of the experiment it was taken. • Create a single graph plotting the data you collected for your dependent variable for each condition. • A conclusion based on your data. Do you accept or reject your hypothesis? Is there a clear answer? What follow-up experiment could you perform? Score (20):______________ Total Score for Website Content (40 points):______________ Website Construction (20 points) Each component is worth 4 points. Component Score Site Coherence Spelling and Grammar Formatting and Scheme Structure and Navigation Resource Citation 4 3 Content is informative, pertinent, and connections are made between different pages. Content is informative and pertinent, but there is no coherence or references made between pages. 1-2 spelling or grammar mistakes. Proofread thoroughly Colors, fonts, images fit a coherent, aestheticallypleasing theme Well organized, intuitive layout, highly navigable A few spelling or grammar mistakes. All sources cited using proper format There is a theme, but elements don’t quite fit together aesthetically. There is only a vague attempt at a theme with no regard for aesthetic. Organized somewhat intuitively, but includes a few dead or missing links. Unorganized with a few dead or missing links. Sources cited, but a few citations incorrectly formatted. Sources cited, but several citations incorrectly formatted. Notes: Total 20 Total for Website Content (40 points):___________ Total for Website Construction (20 points):____________ Overall score (60 points):___________ 2 Content is informative but not pertinent and no connections are drawn between different content areas. Several mistakes, obviously not proofread. 1 Content is present, but not informative in any meaningful way, not pertinent to the experiment and there is no site coherence. Spelling and grammar issues on every page; hard to read. There are only a few attempts made to connect to a central theme and no regard for aesthetic. Disorganized and almost all links are dead or missing that make navigation very difficult. Sources cited, none in correct format. Micronutrients and Immunity Introduction There is a lot of information out there about nutrition and diet. Most of it deals with weight loss, muscle gain, and boosting energy levels (see any Men’s Fitness or Cosmopolitan cover ever). While many of those concepts deal with macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and, proteins), there are a whole slew of micronutrients (think vitamins and minerals) that your body cannot synthesize and needs to absorb from your food. For this exercise we’re going to focus on micronutrients that are crucial for your immune system. You’re probably familiar with vitamin C; it is often referred to as the end-all be-all for a healthy immune system. While it certainly helps, vitamin C isn’t the only player in bolstering your immune system. There are several other micronutrients – vitamins A, B6, B12, D, E, folate, iron, zinc, copper and selenium – that are essential for antibody production. If you have watched the videos for this module, you know how important those antibodies are. In this exercise we will be focusing on these 10 micronutrients. Protocol Part I – Tracking Your Diet 1. Go to cronometer.com and create an account. If you go straight to the website, the account is free. You could also buy their app for $2.99 if you’d prefer. 2. Track what you eat for 4 days. These don’t have to be consecutive days, just five full days. Input this information in your “Diary” (green arrow in image below) using the Add Food (yellow arrow) function near the top of the page. 3. Using a Google Sheet, create a table with the following columns: Date, Vitamin A, B6, B12, D, E, Folate, Iron, Zinc, Copper, and Selenium. Scroll down to the Vitamins table (pink arrow) and enter the percent of recommended amount you consume of each micronutrient for each day you tracked. Attach a printout of your table to this handout! The image below shows a single day’s-worth of data. Average your percentages for each micronutrient. Then answer the questions below in the Google Sheet. Part II – Analysis Questions 1. Are there micronutrients in this set in which you are consistently deficient (below 100%)? If so, which ones? 2. Pick the micronutrient in which you are most deficient. What food or foods could you incorporate into your diet that would help you attain that micronutrient? How much of that food would you have to eat to get 100% of the recommended amount? 3. What micronutrient are you consistently getting the most of? Do some research and describe a specific process in your body’s immune system or metabolism this micronutrient is supporting. The GMO Tracker Introduction Currently, food labels that contain less than a certain percentage of GMO material (1% in Europe, 5% in the US) can be labeled as Non-GMO. The Non-GMO Project has mediated the process of certifying retailers and their seal can be found on foods that they have determined meet the aforementioned requirement. What is confounding about this certification is that 1) for some of the products that have earned the label, there is no GMO option. Popcorn is an example – the type of corn that goes into popcorn has no strains that have been genetically engineered. 2) Like the organic label, “earning” the non-GMO label can cost thousands of dollars so only producers with deep pockets can get certified. These confounding factors mean that these labels are all but meaningless without more information. Goal The goal of this exercise is to raise your awareness of the GMO material in your everyday life. Secondarily, it is Part I – Digging Deeper Find two foods – 1 that has the Non-GMO label and 1 that doesn’t. Try to work with foods that you eat on a regular basis, but know that this may require a trip to the grocery store. Take pictures of the products, making sure the brand, ingredients list, and nutrition label are visible. Answer the following questions. 1. Looking at the ingredients list on your “GMO” product, try to determine what crop (corn, soybean, etc) is most likely present in the product. How has that crop been genetically modified? 2. Would you suspect any of the ingredients in your “Non-GMO” product to have a GMO strain available? List the first three ingredients here and look into those ingredients to see if you can figure out if it would be possible for this product to contain GMO material. 3. Write a 1 paragraph (5-10 sentences) reflection about what you found in your foods. In your answer you could discuss answers to the following questions: Was there anything surprising? Will you modify (see what I did there?) your eating habits at all? Where do you stand on labeling foods GMO vs. Non-GMO?

Tutor Answer

TeacherAhzaar
School: UT Austin

Attached.

BIOLOGY
1-

Vaccines have become a divisive topic as of late with the rise of the anti-vaccination movement.
Keeping it focused on CIVIL discourse, what is your stance on vaccination? Do you vaccinate
yourself with the flu vaccine every year? Have you or will you vaccinate your children?
Vaccination is crucial for the general well-being of the society. More emphasis should be created
to create awareness on diseases that are most common and the need for one to vaccinate
themselves. However, I do not vaccinate myself every year since I do not consider myself at a
serious risk of contracting diseases. In future I will vaccinate my children when need arises since
I have now learnt the need for vaccination.

2- Microorganisms tend to get a bad rap because the most famous species that we hear about the
most are those that cause infection. Prior to taking this course, did you know you were covered
in microorganisms inside and out? Regardless, has your perspective on our bacterial brethren
changed at all after learning what you have in this unit?
Prior to taking this course, I knew of little microorganisms that I had learnt before. However, I
was not aware that I was covered by microorganisms entirely. My perspective on bacterial
brethren has changed immensely since I became aware of the microorganisms in my body. I now
take more caution and avoid some of the activities I considered normal in the past since I have
learnt that they put me at a greater risk of contracting harmful microorganisms and even diseases.

3-There are countless fad diets and cleanses out there that claim they are the remedy for
everything from obesity to depression. Have you ever followed a strict diet or cleanse regimen?
Why did you do so? What was the regimen based on and how does that align with what you've
learned in this module?
I once tried following strict diet regime but I was not able to due to my tight schedule. I now
only avoid some foods while I take others, I take good care of my health and check my diet but
not in strict conformity with the dietary regulations. I have however learnt that one has to take
good care of the feeds one eats and conduct regular body exercises so as to maintain ones health
in perfect condition. It is also crucial that I align myself with what I have learnt so as to stay
healthy and keep away from diseases.
4-There are countless fad diets and cleanses out there that claim they are the remedy for
everything from obesity to depression. Have you ever followed a strict diet or cleanse regimen?
Why did you do so? What was the regimen based on and how does that align with what you've
learned in this module?

I once tried following strict diet regime but I was not able to due to my tight schedule. I now
only avoid some foods while I take others, I take good care of my health and check my diet but
not in strict conformity with the dietary regulations. I have however learnt that one has to take
good care of the feeds one eats and conduct regular body exercises so as to maintain ones health
in perfect condition. It is also crucial that I align myself with what I have learnt so as to stay
healthy and keep away from diseases.
5-Think about your energy usage during the course of completing this module. Has your usage
changed in anyway? If so, why and how? If not, why not?
The energy I use has increased since I have to perform numerous tasks in the course. This is
mainly due to the undertaking of this course where I have to involve my brain in many cases.
This has resulted to increased energy usage by the body. This has immensely assisted me in
achieving my set goals.

6-What piece of information about energy was the most interesting or life changing in this
module and why?
The most interesting and life changing information was on the need of performing regular body
exercises to keep fit. It is also essential for o to check their diet and ensure the food uptake is
crucial. I especially found the case of having to consume food in different portions interesting.
This is because I had always wondered on how the food uptake should be and how it varies in
terms of food components and amount of food to be taken.
7-Which alternative energy are you most likely to adopt and why? (You might also explain this
by choosing to explain why not to some of the others.)
It will be of great need if I adopted a regular exercising approach as a measure aimed at staying
healthy. It is vital that I take the right components in food and also conduct regular exercises.
This will help in ensuring that I stay free of lifestyle disorders such as obesity. It will also help in
keeping me alert and thus better concentration in taking this course.


Designing a Hypothesis-Driven Experiment
Introduction
This self-designed laboratory experience focuses on applying the scientific
method, which is a careful approach that scientists use to ask and answer specific
questions. We are setting up an experiment that will run for several weeks using a
method of plant growth known as hydroponics. This elegant yet simple method allow
plants to grow without soil thereby allowing tight control over the conditions in which the
plant is grown. More complex hydroponics systems are one theorized way food
production can be amplified for our growing human population. It has also shown
promise in producing food in space!
One structured experiment you will be running within this lab is investigating the
effect of pH on plant growth. For plants grown in soil, soil pH can vary from place to
place and different species of plants vary in their pH preferences. Natural soil pH
depends on the parent rock material from which it was formed and processes like
climate. Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. Acidic soils are
considered to have a 5.0 or lower pH value whereas 10.0 or above is considered a
strong basic or alkaline soil. The pH of soil affects the solubility of nutrients in soil water
and thus it affects the amount of nutrients available for plant uptake. Different nutrients
are available under differing pH conditions. In this part of the experiment we will look at
the effect of pH on the germination and growth rate your plants in order to determine the
range of pH tolerance for the plant. Acidic or basic water will be used in order to
stimulate acidity or alkalinity in soil.
The final portion of the lab is completely defined by you. You will come up with
experimental conditions to investigate a question of your choice. There are countless
questions you could investigate with this experiment. Make it your own!

1

Overall Timeline (for optimal, 5 week experiment)
4-5 Days before starting experiment – Put in Amazon order and acquire supplies.

Day 1 – Set up seeds for germination.

Day 7 – Take down germination and sprout data
– Prepare solutions and transfer seedlings to hydroponics system

Day 7 to ~32 – Take image of hydroponics system every other day.

Wrapping up (~3-4 days) – Compiling images and data. Drawing conclusions.

2

Materials List
On Amazon.com Purchase List
3 pH Test Strips
Seeds (marigold, radish, OR bean)
6 Ball pint mason jars with widemouth top
Hydrofarm Net Cups
Litmus Paper
Hydroponics Fertilizer
LED Grow Light
Hydrokorrels Hydroponics Expanded Clay Grow Rocks

Household Items You Must Provide
6 small water-tight containers (for seed germination)
Acetic Acid (White Vinegar)
Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)
Ruler
Permanent Marker
Paper Towel Sheets
Tweezers
Scissors
Tin foil
Any other components you’d like to add for your part of the experiment.

Helpful conversions:

3

Part I – The Hypothesis
In your experiment, you will be tasked with growing plants in various conditions. You
will have 6 mason jars with which to work: 2 jars will be the control, 1 jar will test low pH,
1 jar will test high pH, and the final two jars will be used to test conditions of your
design.
Take some time in coming up with your experimental conditions. Think carefully and do
a little research on the topics that come to mind. You’ll need to provide rationale for
why you chose the experimental conditions that you chose for your website. Answer
the questions below:
1. What are you going to change about the nutrient solution? In your experiment, this is
called your independent variable.
This will be a test to determine whether the rate of germination is affected by changes in
pH and temperature.

2. How are you going to measure how your plants respond to the altered conditions?
List at least three possibilities. All three must be quantitative (be expressed as
numbers). In other words, you can’t simply say the control plants will be greener or
bigger, you need to be more specific. You need something about the plant that you can
easily measure. These are called your dependent variables.
1. The length of the plant stems.
2. Number of leaves per plant.
3. Length of the roots.

3. State your hypothesis for the experiment you’re proposing. The hypothesis must be
one complete sentence, and it must take the form of “If ______________, then
________________.”
If seeds are provided with a low pH and a relatively high temperature, then they will
grow faster and more healthy.
Phase II: Implementing Your Experiment
Part II – Getting Going: Seed Germination
1. Use tape and a permanent marker to label six small, water-tight containers (with

4

transparent lids/covers). Labels should include control (2x), low pH, high pH, and
enough information on your experimental conditions to keep them straight.
2. Carefully cut three small circles from the paper towel sheets. The circles should
comfortably fit within the bottom of the container.
3. Place the circles in the water-tight containers and wet them with approximately 2 mL
of water. We’ll be using water to get our seeds growing, then the hydroponics solutions
in the mason jars will provide the rest of the water and nutrients necessary for growth.
4. Arrange 10 seeds on each paper towel in each container. Make sure the seeds have
space and are not touching. Then put the cover on the container.
5. Place the containers under your grow light. Use the timer that came with your lamp
to have the lamp on for 12 hours out of the day and off for the other 12. Be sure to keep
the paper towels moist for the length of the experiment.
6. Observe the seeds for seven days. Take pictures of the seeds every other day. On
the seventh day of the experiment, record the number of seeds that have germinated
(put a root out) below in Table 1. Also measure the length in cm of each seed sprout
(from root tip to shoot tip) and calculate the average for each given condition. Record
those averages here.
Container
Control 1
Control 2
Low pH
High pH
High
temperature 35
K
Cold conditions
10 K

Seeds Germinated
4
5
6
2

Average Length of Sprout
8.5
7.3 cm
7.6cm
6.1cm

5

7.3cm

2

4.1 cm

Table 1: Seed Germination

5

Part III – Mixing Solutions
1. As stated above, you’ll be working with 6 mason jars – 2 control jars, 1 low pH jar, 1
high pH jar, and 2 experimental jars. “Scaled” recipes for these solutions can be found
in the table below. USE THESE SCALED RECIPES TO CALCULATE HOW MUCH
TO MAKE TO FILL THE MASON JAR. For your Experimental jars, you don’t have to
know how much of each component would go into a liter of liquid, BUT you do need to
keep track of the amounts (ml, teaspoons, grams, oz, etc) of each component that go
into your jar. When thinking of what to add to your experimental jars, consider fertilizer
the base. In other words, if you’re wondering if some component “can support growth”,
don’t add fertilizer. But if you’re wondering if some component “will kill” plants, add the
fertilizer plus that component.
2. Take the pH of every solution using litmus paper. Take a picture of the litmus paper
and write the pH down.
Control Jars (2x)

**If you don’t have
kitchen utensils that
can measure milliliters
or grams, convert
these measurements
to units found in
standard kitchen
utensils.
Component
Fertilizer
Water

Amount for 1 liter
4 ml
996 ml

Amount for 380 ml
1.5 ml
400ml
pH:__7_____________

Low pH
Component
Fertilizer
White Vinegar
Water

Amount for 1 liter
4 ml
10 ml
986 ml

Amount for 380 ml
1.5 ml
3.8 ml
400 ml
pH:___5____________

High pH
Component

Amount for 1 liter

Amount for 380 ml
6

Fertilizer
Baking Soda
Water

4 ml
10 grams
996 ml

1.5 ml
3.8 grams
400 ml
pH:_11______________

Low Temperature
Component
Fertilizer
Temperature
Water

Amount for 1 liter
4ml
10 K
996 ml

Amount for 380 ml
1.5 ml
10 K
400 ml

High
Temperature
Experimental 2
Component
Fertilizer
Temperature
Water

pH:___6.8____________

Amount for 1 liter
4 ml
35 K
996 ml

Amount for 380 ml
4 ml
35 K
400 ml

pH:___6.8____________
Part IV – Assembling the Hydroponic System
1. Once you have mixed your solutions described in Part III, pour those solutions into
the LABELED mason jars. Do not overfill the jars – keep in mind that you’ll be putting
net pots with clay rocks in the jars. Be sure to keep your solutions straight. You’ll label
the jars after covering them in tin foil (below).
2. Cap each jar and invert it a few times to mix the solution up.
3. Un-skrew the cap, take out the metal seal, and screw the threaded ring back on.
Retrieve a net pot and gently place it in the hole left by the seal to test that it fits. It
should rest with about 1/3-1/2 of the net pot immersed in the nutrient solution.
4. Remove the net pot from the jar and fill it with expanded clay rocks.
5. Gently take seedlings from your germination containers and place them in the net
pot with clay rocks. Try to make sure the roots hang down as far as possible. Know
that the clay rocks will soak up some water, so the roots do NOT need to be making
direct contact with the liquid if your jar at this point. Place 8 seedlings in each pot.
6. Place the net pot in the mason jar as you did before. Check to see if the roots of the
seedlings are touching t...

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Anonymous
Outstanding Job!!!!

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