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timer Asked: Oct 22nd, 2018
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Question Description

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(140 word for per answer) So ignore the number of pages, I am not sure for that.

Tutor Answer

School: University of Maryland

I have made some edits consider the second document.

Running head: SELF-CONCEPT

Student’s Name:
Professor’s Name:




1. Define self-concept and explain how discrepancies between our “selves” can produce negative
emotions and lowered self-esteem. Discuss adaptive and maladaptive ways of coping in how we
think or act. Give examples and be thorough.
Self- concept can be defined as an idea of the self-constructed from the opinions one holds about
oneself and the responses of others.
Discrepancies between our “selves” can produce negative emotions and lowered self-esteem
especially when one doesn’t meet his/ her own expectations. Emotions such as cheerfulness
while sadness increase when the actual-ideal incongruities tend to be more than actual-ideal
congruencies. Also disparity amid the actual and ought selves results to calm emotions decrease
and increase in anxiety levels.
Use of one’s knowledge and internal strength to avoid overreaction during a negative situation
and reacting in a healthier and mature way is referred to as adaptive copying. An example is
when your baby school child has cracked your phone and instead of punishing him you take the
pads and start playing a video game to change the mood. Maladaptive copying is the lack of
control to your reactions and can make one become reliant on objects. For example, when the
lights go off and you were watching your favorite channel you start hitting the screen and you
walk out slamming the doors in anger.

2. Discuss Festinger’s (1954) Social Comparison Theory. What role does it play with selfconcept? Examples?
Festinger’s theory on social comparison assumes that in order for people to weigh their ideas and
aptitudes they normally equate the selves with others. This can be in matters such as test
performance, one’s appearance and many more which can be personal pleasing. When one
compares him/ herself with a better person it helps in improvement of the individual self-concept
which is achieved by the upgrading of personal skills literally bringing about the upward social
comparison. In adversely if one compares him/ herself with others who are in a lower reference
group it gives the person composure and relaxed hence resulting in the downward social
comparison. For instance, when a class of 100 students is tested and ranked the top five students
think they have already achieved when they compare themselves with the rest.
3. Compare and contrast individualism and collectivism. How does culture influence self-view?
Individualism culture majorly focuses on the concerns of each person while collectivism attends
to group goals and needs wholly.



Individualism; in a class, every student works hard to pass the exams and acquire a good grade.
Collectivism; in a school, a teacher is normally focused on how the students will ...

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