Quantitative Research/Social Change and Ethics/Quantitative Business Research

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The business environment today is constantly changing with changing demands of employees especially the entry level position employees that are costly demanding for more salaries/wages and improved services (Atmojo, 2015). Many organizations sometimes fail to recognize the signs that are associated to low motivation as a result of unfilled demands due to lack of transformational leadership within the organizational framework. As such the new hires accounts for the highest employee turnover rates within most organizations. The general business problem is organization have a high turnover rate for entry-level employees that are a misguided by leadership. The high turnover rates are costly to the organization since it hurts productivity, as it is difficult to maintain the same level of productivity when the new employees are constantly leaving the organization (Choi et al., 2016). The specific business problem is the lack of the leadership strategies to educate and retain entry-level employees.

Atmojo, M. (2015). The influence of transformational leadership on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee performance. International research journal of business studies, 5(2).

Choi, S. L., Goh, C. F., Adam, M. B. H., & Tan, O. K. (2016). Transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction: the mediating role of employee empowerment. Human resources for health, 14(1), 73.

Quantitative Research and Social Change

It is crucial for you, as an independent scholar, to be able to apply knowledge and skills in these courses—not just to your DBA Doctoral Study, but to the wider world of business research. Promoting positive social change includes seeking opportunities for improvement of human or social conditions by promoting the worth, dignity, and development of individuals, communities, organizations, institutions, cultures, or societies.

To prepare review the articles from Katzenstein and Chrispin (2011) and Santhosh and Baral (2015). Answer in 1-2 pages and consider how the process and results of quantitative business research can shed insights into other areas related to positive social change such as corporate social responsibility. Create an explanation of the relationship between quantitative business research results and positive social change. Describe ways business leaders can benefit both financially and socially from quantitative data analyses. Explain how you can directly apply perspectives on promoting positive social change to professional practice pertaining to your DBA Doctoral Study topic, providing examples from your DBA Doctoral Study prospectus. Be sure to support your work with a minimum of two specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and at least one additional scholarly source.

Ethics and Quantitative Business Research

When conducting a DBA doctoral research study, independent scholars are required to be as clear as possible in reporting the procedures used to obtain results. Being honest in accounting for their work is essential for researchers. The question arises as to what constitutes unethical behavior when conducting quantitative research. A major area of concern is fabrication of data or results and can lead to danger for others if, for example, critical business decisions are made on the basis of false findings.

To prepare review the articles from Frechtling and Boo (2012) and Greenwood (2016). Answer in 1-2 pages and consider the many ethical decisions you must make as an independent scholar during your DBA doctoral research. Moreover, think about the implications on business practice and key stakeholders if you present incorrect findings to business leaders. Describe an analysis of the role of ethical decision making on the practice of quantitative business research. In your analysis, Explain the impact of using reliable and valid measures on quantitative findings. Describe the negative impact of using inappropriate measurements, including supportive examples. Explain the importance of knowledge of quantitative techniques to the ethical outcomes of quantitative research. Be sure to support your work with a minimum of two specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and at least one additional scholarly source.

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J Bus Ethics (2012) 106:149–160 DOI 10.1007/s10551-011-0986-7 On the Ethics of Management Research: An Exploratory Investigation Douglas C. Frechtling • Soyoung Boo Received: 18 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published online: 7 August 2011  Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract While there is an abundant academic literature on professional codes of ethics, there appears to be few devoted to assessing the compliance of management research with such codes. This article presents the results of applying the World Association for Public Opinion Research (WAPOR) Code of Professional Ethics and Practices to research articles based on probability sample surveys in the top three academic journals covering tourism, hospitality, and related fields. Four research questions are posed to focus application of the WAPOR Code to nearly 200 articles published in three recent years. Content analysis of these articles, documented by a measure of intercoder reliability, indicates that it is feasible for multiple coders to accurately apply the WAPOR Code to such articles. None of the articles examined complied with all WAPOR standards, and fewer than half of them complied with half of the standards. Finally, we find that there is some difference among the three journals in compliance, but this difference is relatively small. In sum, there is very little compliance with ethical standards in the field of management research studied here. Keywords Code of ethics  Management research  Content analysis  Research ethics  Sample surveys  Intercoder reliability D. C. Frechtling (&)  S. Boo Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, School of Business, The George Washington University, 2201 G Street, N. W., Suite 301, Washington, DC 20052, USA e-mail: frechtli@gwu.edu S. Boo e-mail: soyoungb@gwu.edu Introduction There is abundance of corporate codes of ethics, and the published research on them is plentiful (Fennell 2000; Kaptein and Schwartz 2008; Langlois and Schlegelmilch 1990; Long and Driscoll 2008; Svensson and Wood 2008). There is also a class of ethical codes developed by professional associations to guide their members toward ethical behavior (Christian and Gumbus 2009; Coughlan 2001; Gaumnitz and Lere 2002; Groves et al. 2006; Pater and Van Gils 2003; Skubik and Stening 2009; Wiley 2000). Adopting from Pater and Van Gils (2003, p. 765), we define ‘‘professional codes of ethics’’ as ‘‘written, distinct and formal documents, issued by professional associations, that attempt to guide the professional behaviour of their members.’’ Skubik and Stening (2009) maintain that ‘‘the most important role of a code is to explain the underlying professional values and principles’’ to guide association members (p. 520). They further note that these may be developed as ‘‘an aspirational guide and education tool for members’’ (p. 515) and may include ‘‘enforceable standards’’ (p. 520). Purpose Motivated by Coughlan’s (2001) recommendation that ‘‘additional studies are needed that explore the relevance and effectiveness of existing professional codes’’ (p. 157), we focus here on the ethical guidance provided for the conduct of research for management. Chia (2002) distinguishes management research as dealing ‘‘fundamentally with the production and legitimization of the various forms of knowledge associated with the practices of management’’ (p. 1). These practices of management include 123 150 D. C. Frechtling, S. Boo human resource management (Wiley 2000), marketing (Rau and Kane 1999), research, finance, and operations (Datar et al. 2010). We adopt this definition of management research in this study. We choose a specific field of management research and identify a professional code of ethics that pertains to that field. We operationalize the standards in the code with statements that can be applied to articles published in academic journals to indicate compliance or non-compliance with each. To shed light on the ethics of management research, we compose four research questions. We then identify nearly 200 articles published in the top academic journals in that field (management research) and apply the professional code to them. Finally, we propose answers to the research questions and state conclusions about the ethics of management research. and publication of public opinion research worldwide, (d) promote international cooperation and exchange among academic and commercial researchers, journalists and political actors, as well as between the representatives of the different scientific disciplines’’ (World Association for Public Opinion Research 2010, p. 1). The WAPOR Code ‘‘defines professional ethics and practices in the field of public opinion research’’ (p. 1) and explains that the standards within it are promulgated in order Background on Management Research Ethics The ‘‘instrument of public opinion’’ referred to here is the scientific opinion poll defined by three characteristics: Relatively little has been published on the ethics of management research. Rau and Kane (1999) address the ethical issues that can arise in marketing research. They conclude that the establishment of ‘‘codes of ethics governing marketing research practice’’ (p. 144) is worthy of consideration. Payne (2000) explores the assumptions, values, ideologies, and other influences that affect the choice of business research practice, often at an implicit level. Ryan (2005) discusses duties of scientific inquiry in the field of tourism research and concludes that researchers must act with honesty and integrity while pursuing justice. Perdue (1991) examines the field of visitor surveys to determine the economic impact of tourists on a geographic area and provides a list of potential ethical problems. He suggests that presenting results from a convenience sample of visitors as being the same as those derived from a probability sample is unethical behavior. Chia (2002) observes that management researchers are ‘‘governed by a code of practice established by a community of scholars’’ (p. 4). While some such codes may be implicitly understood, others take the form of formal professional codes of ethical conduct (Groves et al. 2009; Korac-Kakabadse et al. 2002). One such formal professional code applicable to management research is promulgated by the World Association for Public Opinion Research (WAPOR) as the WAPOR Code of Professional Ethics and Practices. WAPOR was founded in 1947 to ‘‘(a) promote in each country of the world the right to conduct and publish scientific research on what the people and its groups think and how this thinking is influenced by various factors, (b) promote the knowledge and application of scientific methods in this objective, (c) assist and promote the development 123 • • • 1. 2. 3. ‘‘to advance the use of science in the field of public opinion research; to protect the public from misrepresentation and exploitation in the name of research; to maintain confidence that researchers in this field are bound by a set of sound and basic principles’’ (World Association for Public Opinion Research 2010, p. 1). Designed to measure the views of a specific group of humans; Respondents are chosen according to explicit criteria in order to ensure representation of the group; Survey questions are ‘‘worded in a balanced way’’ (ESOMAR 2008, p. 5). Scientific opinion polls, also called probability sample surveys, gather information for dealing with a number of management issues, such as market segmentation, customer satisfaction, and product planning (Groves et al. 2009). Structure of the WAPOR Code The WAPOR Code of Professional Ethics and Practices ‘‘prescribes principles of ethical practices for the guidance of its members, and a framework of professional standards that should be acceptable to users of research and to the public at large’’ (World Association for Public Opinion Research 2010, p. 1). Employing the classification scheme proposed by Gaumnitz and Lere (2004), the WAPOR Code contains 44 statements in five thematic areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Responsibilities of Researchers; Responsibilities of Sponsor; Rules of Practice Regarding Reports and Survey Results (i.e., disclosure of methods); Responsibility to Informants; Practice between Researchers. In Gaumnitz/Lere terms, the WAPOR Code is a horizontal five-statement code. Its shape is 12, 5, 15, 7, 5, disclosure, responsibilities of researchers. In terms of tone, On the Ethics of Management Research it is overwhelmingly positive (‘‘thou shalt’’ = 35 statements) rather than negative (‘‘thou shalt not’’ = 9 statements). Finally, it appears to be aspirational rather than legal since the words ‘‘enforceable’’ do not appear and no mechanism is stated for reporting and investigating alleged violations (in contrast to Skubik and Stening 2009 and Academy of Management, n.d., p. 6). WAPOR Code Article II, section C, specifies 14 ‘‘Rules of Practice Regarding Reports and Survey Results,’’ stating, ‘‘Every complete report on a survey should contain an adequate explanation of the following relevant points’’ (p. 3). These points are listed verbatim in Table 1. The WAPOR Code specifies the ethical obligations of survey researchers toward the public, including their clients. This appears to be congruent with one of the ‘‘two broad aspects of ethical practice especially relevant for survey research’’ that academic and professional survey researchers recognize (Groves et al. 2009, p. 371). The other aspect of ethical practice required from survey Table 1 WAPOR Rules of Practice Regarding Reports and Survey Results Every complete report on a survey should contain an adequate explanation of the following relevant points: For whom the survey was conducted and by whom it was carried out The purpose of the study The universe or population to which the results of the survey are projected The method by which the sample was selected, including both the type of sample (probability, quota, etc.) and the specific procedures by which it was selected Steps taken to ensure that the sample design would actually be carried out The degree of success in actually carrying out the design, including the rate Of non-response and a comparison of the size and characteristics of the actual and anticipated samples A full description of the estimating procedure used for all results that are reported, including the sample size on which it was based and weighting procedures used to adjust raw data A full description of the method employed in the survey The time at which the survey, if any, was done, and the time span covered in collecting data The findings obtained (Where the nature and the research demands it) the characteristics of those employed as interviewers and coders and the methods of their training and supervision A copy of the interview schedule or questionnaire and instructions Which results are based on parts of the sample, rather than the whole sample A description of the precision of the findings, including, if applicable, estimates of sampling error Source World Association for Public Opinion Research (2010) 151 researchers—procedures directly affecting survey respondents—is not addressed here. Researchers’ ethical obligations to respondents are often embodied in law (Institutional Review Boards and other procedures) and deal with minimizing potential harm to respondents and maximizing benefits to them, including respect for persons and informed consent of respondents before their participation. Groves et al. (2009) maintain that a broad aspect of ethical practice in survey research regards general standards of scientific conduct. These standards include following procedures that yield valid conclusions, as well as avoiding ‘‘plagiarism, falsification or fabrication in proposing, performing, reviewing research or on reporting research results’’ (p. 372). This area of ethical survey practice also requires disclosure of certain information about a survey and its conduct when the findings are publicly released. The overall objective of this ethical practice is to encourage transparency in survey research, that is, complete disclosure of survey methods. This objective derives from what biologist Glass (1965) calls ‘‘the ought of science’’: ‘‘a full and true report is the hallmark of the scientist, a report as accurate and faithful as he can make it in every detail. The process of verification depends upon the ability of another scientist who wishes to repeat a procedure and to confirm an observation’’ (p. 83). It is noteworthy that the Academy of Management Code of Ethics ‘‘Professional Principles’’ for research and publications state similar objectives (Academy of Management, n.d., p. 4). Moreover, Michalos (1991, p. 416), in a different context, proposes eight characteristics that publishers of results of public opinion polls of the electorate during election campaigns should provide so as ‘‘to maintain and even increase the benefits of public opinion polling while significantly reducing the costs.’’ To provide a focus for our research, and to build upon the knowledge of a distinct field of management that we have acquired, we focus on sample surveys as management research in tourism, hospitality, recreation, and related fields. We investigate compliance with the WAPOR rules of a set of articles published in specific academic journals in these fields in recent years. We do so by defining Research Questions that indicate compliance with the WAPOR rules and applying them to the set of articles through content. After careful consideration of the consensus of the content coders, we determine whether and how the articles comply with the WAPOR principles. We draw conclusions from these findings and recommend approaches that can improve the compliance of management research articles and reports with ethical principles. ‘‘Compliance’’ relating to codes of ethics includes auditing, verification, and enforceability (Kolk and van 123 152 Tulder 2002; referenced in Fennell and Malloy 2007, p. 77). Examples of effective compliance factors in the published literature are unavailable, according to these authors. However, as at least one concrete example of compliance procedures in a professional code, we note The Academy of Management Code of Ethics includes a set of ‘‘Technical Standards [that] set forth enforceable rules of conduct for AOM members’’ (Academy of Management, n.d., p. 1). To be effective, codes of conduct require explicit investigations of compliance and identification of instances of non-compliance, defined as behavior that does not conform to the prescriptions in a code of ethics (Fennell and Malloy 2007, p. 15). Wiley (2000) maintains that without an enforcement mechanism, professional codes degenerate into public relations tools. Research Questions We do not believe there is enough ‘‘conceptual development and concomitant empirical support’’ to justify presenting formal hypotheses here (Somers 2001, p. 187). Rather, we propose several Research Questions relating to published survey research for management examined here. Our findings regarding these Questions may lead to formal hypotheses that may be tested in later research. Research Question 1: Is it practicable to determine compliance of published management research survey articles with WAPOR rules with an acceptable degree of reliability? This question addresses Compliance Assessment Feasibility: can coders with little coding experience consistently apply the rules to published journal articles? If there is little agreement among coders as to whether individual articles comply with individual standards, then there is little point in trying to apply the WAPOR standards to the published articles on probability sample surveys. On the other hand, if coders evidence a high level of agreement, then we can conclude it is practicable to apply the WAPOR standards to published articles to ascertain compliance with ethical standards for management research. Research Question 2: Do a majority of these articles comply with most of the WAPOR rules? This addresses General Compliance of authors of management research articles with the WAPOR standards. If we find that most articles comply with most of the WAPOR standards, then we can fairly affirm that management research is ethical. On the other hand, if most of the articles fail to comply with most of the principles, then we can fairly deduce that management research is not ethical. 123 D. C. Frechtling, S. Boo Research Question 3: Are most of the WAPOR rules widely observed in the articles while a few are not? This question addresses Specific Compliance with the WAPOR rules. If we find there are several principles that are widely ignored in published management research, but that many of the others are generally observed, then we can conclude that non-compliance is limited to a few specific standards. We could then conclude that while management research is ethical in general, there are a few areas of research ethics, which need to be observed for management research to completely comply with ethical standards for management sample survey research. Conversely, we might find that most of the standards are widely ignored, while only a few are generally followed, suggesting that management research is ethical only with regard to a few rules. Research Question 4: Does the degree of compliance with the WAPOR Code differ significantly among the journals providing the articles? This last question addresses Publication Compliance. How it is answered indicates how widely management research ethics is observed among the journals. If we find that only one journal is the source of a majority of the non-compliance, then we cannot fairly conclude that management research is unethical, only that lack of compliance is centered in one source. The other journals can then be labeled sources of ethical management research. Method Content Analysis Content analysis is a method of codifying the content of a selection of writing into various categories depending on specified criteria (Weber 1990). Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Although the term ‘‘content analysis’’ was first used in the field of communication, the practice of such methodology has been widely employed in exploratory research, theory development, hypothesis testing and applied research (Smith 2000). Krippendorff (2004) viewed content analysis as a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data according to their context. Content analysis entails a systematic recording of a body of units, images, and symbolic matter, though not necessarily from the author’s perspective. The overall goal of content On the Ethics of Management Research analysis is to identify and record relatively objective characteristics of messages (Stemler 2001). Tucker et al. (1999) and Gaumnitz and Lere (2002) apply this technique to the analysis of professional codes of U.S. associations. Hayes and Krippendorff (2007) maintain that generating data may take the form of judgments of kind (in which category the unit belongs), of magnitude (how prominent an attribute is within a unit), or of frequency (how often something occurs). We apply content analysis for the third purpose in this article. In general, manifest content analysis (i.e., surface elements that are physically present) and latent content analysis (i.e., coders’ subjective interpretations) are the two distinguishable areas central in the application of content analysis. Initi ...
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