I need help with my BCJ 2002 homework

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Probably two of the most controversial rights convicted inmates (felons) while in custody is the right to vote and the right to bear arms. In most cases, these and other rights are controlled by the State who has jurisdiction over the individual. It is pretty obvious someone serving time probably should not be armed with a weapon but what about their right to vote in federal and state elections? I would be interested in your thoughts.

My classmate wrote this and I have to comment on it Unit VII:

The 8th amendment protects individuals from cruel and unusual punishment. From here there has been precedent and standards set on the treatment of prisoners and how they are punished. The Constitution and the framework of our judicial system also provides individuals convicted of a crime the ability to appeal their sentences or convictions through specialized courts. Once incarcerated offenders have access to the legal system they can file motions and other legal proceedings through the court to check the system that placed them behind bars. There have been numerous wrongful convictions of offenders and it is important to provide offenders as much access to the legal system least one day an innocent person may find himself in the same predicament and would want the same access. It is important that a free and just society allow severe checks to the correctional and judicial system through legal process so that the right of the innocent are always preserved.


I have to answer these questions:

Question #1

Provide a summary of at least one of the careers discussed in this unit.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length.

Question # 2

Utilizing materials in this unit, provide a summary of the correctional populations of two other countries. How do these compare to the populations in the United States?

Your response should be at least 400 words in length.

I have attached a power point for these 2 questions hope it helps

UNIT VIII International Corrections, Careers, and the Future INTERNATIONAL CORRECTIONS Can we learn from other systems? International Corrections • About 10 million individuals are currently incarcerated in the world (Walmsley, n.d.). • Consequently, international correctional systems exist. • It is important to learn about other systems so that we may • learn from them, and • determine if they are experiencing the same issues (Campbell, 2014). Learn more about why we should study international corrections at http://www.corrections.com/news/article/35059-international-corrections (Hermann, 2014) International Corrections • Various international correctional associations exist. • Click below to learn more about each of the five associations provided. Click here for the Institute for Criminal Policy Research. Click here for the International Corrections and Prisons Association. Click here for the Penal Reform International. Click here for the International Community Corrections Association. Click here for the International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology. International Corrections • Before exploring international corrections, let us review the U.S. correctional information. (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2016) (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-h) International Corrections Prisoner Information • • • • Pretrial detainees: 20.4% Female prisoners: 9.3% Juvenile prisoners: .3% Foreign prisoners: 5.5% Facility Information • Number of facilities: 4575 • Occupancy level: 102.7% (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-h) International Corrections • As of 2009, Costa Rica had 33 facilities. • As of 2013, they had an occupancy rate of 139.4% (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-a). The occupancy rate is the percentage of the facility that is occupied as compared to the amount of prisoners it can hold. For example, in a prison that holds 100 inmates, a 100% occupancy rate means they are at maximum capacity. A prison having an occupancy rate of more than 100% equates to overcrowding. • Consequently, similar to the United States, Costa Rica is also struggling with prison overcrowding. (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-a) International Corrections Learn more about overcrowding in Costa Rica at (Hermann, 2014) http://www.ticotimes.net/2015/06/27/prison-overcrowding-costarica-jumps-50-percent-10-years International Corrections • Honduras is one of the most violent Latin American nations. • As of 2014, they had • • • • • 24 facilities; nine national prisons; four prison farms; nine departmental lock-ups; and two local lock-ups (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-c). (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-c) International Corrections Learn more about Honduras by reading the following article about their overhaul of the prison system at (Hermann, 2014) http://www.insightcrime.org/news-analysis/honduras-overhaulsprison-system International Corrections • Haiti has some of the worst prison conditions in the world. • Often, their prisoners lack food and water, are unable to access routine medical services, and their facilities are overcrowded and unsanitary (Office of the High Commissioner, 2014). • Furthermore, the legal system is dysfunctional (e.g., many are unable to understand their rights, preferential treatment is given to the wealthy, and access to counsel is unavailable). • Many individuals are kept in pre-trial detention on average for over a year, and some have been kept for more than six years (Office of the High Commissioner, 2014). (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-b) International Corrections Learn more about Haitian corrections by reading the following article about a new custody area for females in the city of Les Cayes at (Hermann, 2014) https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/news-release/2014/0520-haiti-detention-women.htm International Corrections • Although South Africa has seen a decline in the correctional population, they still have a very high murder rate, which is 10-20 times higher than that of other countries such as Australia, Israel, Italy, and the United Kingdom (Cronje, 2014). • This high rate is equivalent to about 50 murders per day. • Some argue that many have lost faith in the police and have instead come to rely on private security to assist with protection. (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-g) International Corrections (Hermann, 2014) Learn more about South African corrections, including their prison population and how their overcrowded prisons allow gangs to thrive by visiting the links below: http://allafrica.com/stories/201504221699.html  http://www.timeslive.co.za/thetimes/2014/11/13/prison- overcrowding-breeds-gangsterism International Corrections (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-e) • In 2014, Norway had one of the smallest incarceration rates at just 75 per 100,000 (Sterbenz, 2014). • In addition, their recidivism rate is only 20% as compared to the United State’s rate of 76% (Sterbenz, 2014). • Furthermore, violent crime is concentrated on certain areas, and theft is the most often reported crime. International Corrections Learn more about Halden Prison in Norway, which is called one of the most humane facilities in the world, by clicking on the link below: (Hermann, 2014) http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2015/05/31/410532066/innorway-a-prison-built-on-second-chances International Corrections (Hermann, 2014) Norway’s correctional system attracts lots of attention. Learn more about it by clicking on the links below from Business Insider and Independent. http://www.businessinsider.com/why-norways-prison-system-is-so- successful-2014-12?r=UK&IR=T  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/norway-now- able-to-sentence-drug-addicts-to-treatment-rather-than-prisona6873251.html International Corrections • Russia has come a long way from the GULAGs in which individuals were forced to work long hours in extreme climates. • Find out how prisoners were treated and valued by clicking on the link from George Mason University: http://gulaghistory.org/nps/onlineexhibit/stalin/work.php (Paananen, 2005) (Triozat, 2016) International Corrections As of 2016, Russia had 979 facilities with about 646,319 individuals, to include: (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-f) • pre-trial detainees (18.2%); • juveniles(.3%); • females (8.1%); and • foreign (4.6%) (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-f). International Corrections (Hermann, 2014) Still today, Russian corrections continue to raise eyebrows with how they implement measures. Use the “click here” features below to learn more information. Click here to read about the use of force on inmates from Human Rights Watch. Click here to read an article from Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty on forced labor in Russian prisons. International Corrections • As of March 2016, the English and Welsh prison population totaled 85,930 to include the following populations: • • Males (82,036) Females (3,894) (Her Majesty’s Prison Service, 2016). • These individuals resided in either prisons or an Immigration Removal Centre. • Unlike in the United States, UK prisons (England and Wales only) have regular inspections from Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons (HMI Prisons). • Prisons are inspected at least every five years, with some inspected every two to three years. International Corrections • Healthy prisons, according to HMI Prisons, include the following: • • • (Her Majesty’s Prison Service, n.d.) • All prisoners should be held in the safest possible environment. Prisoners should be treated respectfully to heighten their self worth. Prisoners should be given opportunities to participate in beneficial activities. Prisoners should be prepared to reenter the community with less of a chance for reoffending (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons, 2016). International Corrections • As we continue to expand the horizons on international corrections, click here to find out what the English and Welsh are doing currently. • Many times, career plans do not always go as planned. Read about Adam Gould and how he would not change working in the British Prison Service by clicking here. International Corrections (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-d) • Similar to many other countries, including the United States, India’s prisons are operating above capacity at 117.4% (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-d). • Unlike the United States, a large portion of India’s prison population is composed of pretrial detainees (67.6% of the 418,536 total prison population) (Institute for Criminal Policy Research, n.d.-d). International Corrections To learn more about the history and current trends in Indian corrections, visit the following two websites: (Hermann, 2014) http://www.livemint.com/Politics/RTiezbylKZ39iFIJ69GIzO/Cabinet- nod-for-trial-of-juveniles-accused-of-heinous-crimes.html http://wbcorrectionalservices.gov.in/history02.html International Corrections- By the Numbers Nations with the highest prison population U.S. (2,217,000) China (1,649,804) Russian Federation (464,319) Brazil (607,731) India (418,536) Thailand (315,969) Mexico (255,138) Iran (225,624) Adapted from Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Highest to lowest-Female prisoners (percentage of prison population), n.d. International Corrections- By the Numbers Highest % of Female Prisoners (% of Prison Population) Hong Kong (20.5%) Andorra (18.2%) Monaco (17.4%) Macau (16.6%) Myanmar (16.3%) Bolivia (14.7%) Qatar (14.7%) Adapted from Institute for Criminal Policy Research, Highest to lowest-Female prisoners (percentage of prison population), n.d. FUTURE OF CORRECTIONS Future of Corrections • It could be argued that the United States could learn from international corrections. • In 2015, a group of correctional personnel, researchers, state officials, prosecutors, and activists visited German prisons. • State officials who participate in this tour are often termed part of the “Second Change Society” (The Marshall Project, 2015). • Tours taken in previous years have led to changes in many states to include Pennsylvania. Future of Corrections Read about the Marshall Project, in which Americans toured German prisons in 2015. The five articles below depict the tourists’ experiences: (Hermann, 2014) • Day 1: https://www.themarshallproject.org/2015/06/16/how-germany-doesprison#.0MXLjdPmf • Day 2: https://www.themarshallproject.org/2015/06/17/germany-s-kindergentler-safer-prisons • Day 3: https://www.themarshallproject.org/2015/06/18/can-german-prisonsteach-america-how-to-handle-its-most-violent-criminals#.NgTShMq8m • Day 4: https://www.themarshallproject.org/2015/06/19/how-germanytreats-juveniles#.4QZ3ld7Wx • Day 5: https://www.themarshallproject.org/2015/06/22/the-stiffcompetition-to-work-in-german-prisons#.TUqi8VKDK Future of Corrections • In addition, the actual correctional facilities could change structurally. (PeteLinforth, 2016) Read more about possible structural changes at (Hermann, 2014) http://www.officer.com/article/10565743/the-prison-of-the-future Future of Corrections (Geralt, n.d.) (Hermann, 2014) • Leadership will also be an important part of the future of corrections. • Part of this includes developing new leadership from staff within the system. Read more from an online article by The Pew Center on the States by clicking on the link below. Do note, you are only required to read/focus on Section 10, pp. 16-17 within the document. You may read more/all of the document, but it is not required of you. https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/media/publications/pew_report_ten_steps _corrections_dir_can_take_to_strengthen_performance_may_2008.pdf Future of Corrections • Care for the elderly and care for those who require constant care will also be a major concern in the future of corrections. Read more about prison hospice care by accessing the link below: (Hermann, 2014) http://npha.org/npha-articles/models/a-prison-hospice-model-for-thefuture/ Future of Corrections • Staffing will also be an issue for the future of corrections. • Current budget cuts and overcrowded facilities require that staff work long days (sometimes 10 hours), which may result in high turnover. • Attracting and retaining qualified candidates will be a priority. CAREERS IN CORRECTIONS Careers in Corrections (Leks, 2012) • Many opportunities are available in corrections, and many institutions are hiring. • These opportunities range from security staff to treatment staff. • Before discussing these opportunities, read the linked article below entitled “First Day on the Job as a Corrections Officer: How to Prepare and What to Expect” by James W. Buckner Jr.: http://discovercorrections.com/blog/First-Day-on-Job-asCorrections-Officer-How-to-Prepare-What-to-Expect Careers in Corrections • Watch the video on the right, which is entitled A Day in the Life of a Correctional Officer (9:38). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tk2lw6qjdAM Careers in Corrections • The next few slides will provide information about careers in corrections. Click the corresponding photo to read about the duties, skills, and more. • Keep in mind that different facilities will hire according to their needs; therefore, not all facilities may have these openings. Careers in Corrections Suggested Reading: There are many different career choices within the line of corrections. If you would like to view the four below, click on computer screen above each title. (Geralt, 2014) Resident Unit Manager (Geralt, 2014) Correctional Treatment Specialist (Geralt, 2014) Correctional Officer II (Geralt, 2014) Correctional Officer Recruit Careers in Corrections Required Reading: Finally, in terms of potential career options, you may view the following to see what is required and what the job descriptions are for them by clicking on the computer screen images associated with each career. Institutional Farms Manager (Geralt, 2014) Recreation Coordinator, Corrections (Geralt, 2014) Careers in Corrections • In addition to the opportunities listed in previous slides, positions may also be available in the following categories: • • • • • • accounting, maintenance, medical/records, facility management, quality assurance, and training. Careers in Corrections Suggested Reading : • To determine a position’s availability, please review the appropriate state/city or federal website. • A few are provided below: • • • • • • Texas: https://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/divisions/hr/ California: http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/career_opportunities/ Florida: http://www.fldocjobs.com/jobs/vacancies.html Tennessee: https://www.tn.gov/correction/employment.html Corrections Corporation of America: https://www.correctionsone.com/corrections-careers/ Feel free to also browse other states’ websites for careers in corrections as you never know what is available until you look, and you never know where your career could go. References Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2016). Correctional populations in the United States, 2014. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus14.pdf Campbell, T. (2014). International corrections. Retrieved from http://www.corrections.com/news/article/35059-international-corrections Cronje, F. (2014). Crime in SA: SA suffering an “extraordinary” criminal onslaught-expert. BizNews. Retrieved from http://www.biznews.com/thought-leaders/2014/11/07/sa-suffering-extraordinarycriminal-onslaught-ceo-institute-race-relations/ Geralt. (2014, December 9). Monitor, career, success [Image]. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/monitor-career-success-profession-560632/ Geralt. (n.d.). Success, curve, hand, finger, touch [Online Image]. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/success-curve-hand-finger-touch-1093892/ Her Majesty’s Prison Service. (n.d.). Correctional facility [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/hm-prison-service Her Majesty’s Prison Service. (2016). Population and capacity briefing for Friday 18th March 2016. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/prison-population-figures-2016 Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons. (2016). Expectations: Inspection criteria. Retrieved from http://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmiprisons/about-our-inspections/inspection-criteria/ Hermann. (2014, September 11). Books, education, school [Image]. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/books-education-school-literature-441866/ Institute for Criminal Policy Research. (n.d.-a). Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/costa-rica Institute for Criminal Policy Research. (n.d.-b). Haiti. Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/haiti Institute for Criminal Policy Research. (n.d.-c). Honduras. Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/honduras Institute for Criminal Policy Research. (n.d.-d). India. Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/india Institute for Criminal Policy Research. (n.d.-e). Norway. Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/norway Institute for Criminal Policy Research. (n.d.-f). Russian Federation. Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/russian-federation Institute for Criminal Policy Research. (n.d.-g). South Africa. Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/south-africa Institute for Criminal Policy Research. (n.d.-h). United States of America. Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/united-states-america Leks. (2012, February 17). Barbed wire, winter, fence [Image]. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/barbed-wire-winter-fence-prison-265674/ References Lexington Sherriff. (2015, May 26). A day in the life of a correctional officer [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tk2lw6qjdAM Paananen, Mikko. (2005, May 5). Gulag prisoners at work 1936-1937 [Image]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gulag_prisoners_at_work_1936-1937.jpg PeteLinforth. (2016). Background, construction, architecture [Image]. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/background-construction-architecture-1225801/ Sterbenz, C. (2014). Why Norway’s prison system is so successful. Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/why-norways-prison-system-is-so-successful-2014-12?r=UK&IR=T The Marshall Project. (2015). How Germany does prison. Retrieved from https://www.themarshallproject.org/2015/06/16/how-germany-does-prison#.0MXLjdPmf Troizat, A. (2016, February 4). Belomorkanal [Image]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Belomorkanal.png Office of the High Commissioner. (2014). Prison conditions and pre-trial detention in Haiti. Retrieved from http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CCPR/Shared%20Documents/HTI/INT_CCPR_CSS_HTI_18247_E.pdf Walmsley, R. (n.d.). World prison population list (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/world_prison_population_list_11th_edition.pdf

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School: UCLA

Hello, i have completed the assignment. its nice working with you😇

Running head: BCJ 2002 HOMEWORK


BCJ 2002 Homework
Institution Affiliation



Having the right to vote is one of the controversies around convicted inmates while in
custody. There is a large population that is denied a right to vote because they committed a
felony, in my opinion, these individuals should not have a right to vote since they committed a
crime which means they violated social contract (Klumpp, Mialon & Williams, 2017). Every
person should abide by the rules and laws that are set for the good of society. This means if these
inmates broke the agreement that was set, they should not have an entitlement to the benefits like
the right to vote so as to have political representation. However, these right should be reinstated
once an individual is out of prison so as to restore social contract. When an ex-convict is
accepted back in the society, and his right to vote reinstated, the chances of committing a crime
once again are reduced and the feel they are not lesser citizens.
Classmate Response
I agree with the discussion that the eighth amendment protects individuals from cruelty
and unusual punishment. In addition to that, it is against the excess imposition of fines and bail;
this amen...

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