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please solve 20 qustions as soon as possible......................................................

Homework #7 Chapter 7 Name ________________ Student ID ______________ Date ______________ 1 The formulas of sodium phosphate and sodium orthosilicate are Na3PO4 and Na4SiO4 respectively. What are the chemical formulas of calcium phosphate and calcium silicate? 2 Why do nonmetals tend to form anions rather than cations? 3 Arrange the members of each of the following sets of cations in order of increasing ionic radii: (a) K+, Ca2+, Ga3+, (b) Ca2+, Be2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, (c) Al3+, Sr2+, Rb+, K+, (d) K+, Ca2+, Rb+ 4 Which pair will form a compound with the larger lattice energy: Na and F or Mg and F? Why? 5 What type of bond is likely to form between one element with low ionization energy and another element with high electron affinity? Explain your answer. 6 When a covalent bond forms, is energy absorbed or released? 7 Draw the Lewis dot symbol for each of the following atoms. (a) boron (b) fluorine (c) selenium (d) indium 8 Use Lewis dot symbols to explain why chlorine bonds with only one hydrogen atom. 9 How many electrons are shared between two atoms in (a) a single covalent bond, (b) a double covalent bond, and (c) a triple covalent bond? 10 How is electronegativity defined? What's the difference between electron affinity and electronegativity? 11 Based on the positions in the periodic table of the following pairs of elements, predict whether bonding between the two would be primarily ionic or covalent. Justify your answers. (a) Ca and Cl, (b) P and O, (c) Br and I, (d) Na and I, (e) Si and Br, (f) Ba and F. 12 Which of the following contains both ionic and covalent bonds in the same compound? (a) BaCO3, (b) MgCl2, (c) BaO, (d) H2S, (e) SO 24 − 13 Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following molecules or ions. (a) CS2, (b) BF4–, (c) HNO2 (where the bonding is in the order HONO), (d) OSCl2 (where S is the central atom) 14 Draw resonance structures for (a) NO2–, (b) NNO, and (c) HCO2–. 15 Draw the Lewis structure of two resonance forms for ozone, O3. What prediction can you make about the relative lengths of the O–O bonds? 16 Consider the nitrogen–oxygen bond lengths in NO2+, NO2–, and NO3–. In which ion is the bond predicted to be longest? In which is it predicted to be the shortest? Explain briefly. 17 CO, CO2, CH3OH, and CO32– all contain carbon-oxygen bonds. Draw Lewis structures for these molecules and ions. Given that double bonds are stronger than single bonds, and triple bonds are stronger than double bonds, rank the four species in order of increasing C–O bond strength. 18 Draw Lewes structure, count the steric number and lone pair electrons. Using the steric number and lone pair electrons to predict the geometry of the following species: (a) SO2, (b) BeCl2, (c) SeCl4, (d) PCl5 19 Draw Lewes structure, count the steric number and lone pair electrons. Using the steric number and lone pair electrons to predict the shape of each of the following molecules or ions. (a) PH4+ (b) OSF4 (c) ClO2– (d) I3– 20 Give approximate values for the indicated bond angles: (a) Cl–S–Cl in SCl2, (b) N–N–O in N2O, (c) bond angles marked as 1, 2, and 3 in the following structure for vinyl alcohol: (first predict the geometry, then get the angle from geometry)

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