English Comp

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Part 1

It has been said that everyone has a story.These stories can be about anything from heart-wrenching tales of love lost to nerve-racking arguments in a grocery store parking lots.No matter the subject matter, we tend to think that our adventures are the most enthralling events in the history of mankind…until the next big thing happens.The assignment for this week gives you the opportunity to tell your story, to write a narrative essay about some pivotal event or moment in your life that changed you in some way or taught some valuable lesson from which you think a reader might benefit.Before sending this story out for the world to see, it can be highly beneficial though to take a look at it before submitting it to try determine if it is really as engaging and useful as you think.

So, for this week’s discussion, address the following questions.

What is the topic of your essay?Did you pick one of the essay ideas generated from your interview in the W2 discussion, or did you decide to go with something else?

Why might the reader want to read about this topic?

What can or should the reader learn from your story?Or, what is the main idea/thesis of your essay?

Finally, how is your narrative essay topic difficult to develop?How is the story difficult for you to tell?Or, is it?

Part 2

A Literacy Narrative is a special kind of essay in which the writer describes his or her relationship with reading or writing. A narrative is not a person’s life story; it focuses on a single experience or event in the person’s life and shows how the event shaped the person—what he or she learned from it or how the experience helped him or her grow. For example, your literacy narrative could be about how you learned the value of writing or how the feedback of a teacher taught you to love (or hate) writing.

This assignment has two parts. Please submit both parts as a single document.

Part I:

Write a brief (75 to 150-word) literacy narrative which explores some aspect of the Four Basics (Exposure, Motivation, Practice, or Feedback) in The Writer’s Way (pp. 7-10), as it applies to your experiences. Your literacy narrative should describe one event or experience related to writing and show what you learned from it or how it shaped your writing process or attitude toward writing.

You might also want to review “What is an ‘Essay’?” on pp. 3-4.

Part II:

It is important to know what resources you have to help you through this class.Browse the following resources, and, in 75 to 150 words, describe how you think you will be able to use two or more of these to improve your writing skills.

EN101 Syllabushttps://content.grantham.edu/academics/GU_EN101/Sy...

EN101 APA Sample https://content.grantham.edu/academics/GU_EN101/AP...

EN101 APA Template (attached)

Writing and Documenting in APA (attached)

Glossary of Writing Terms (attached)

Frequently Asked Questions (attached)

Part 3 (week 2 assign)

This week, you will be preparing for next week’s essay: the narrative. Take a moment and review the directions for the Week 3 narrative essay. Once you have a topic you want to write your narrative about, you will complete this two part assignment: prewriting and outlining.

Part I

The first part of this assignment will help you “flesh out” your topic. Take 10-15 minutes to free write about your topic. Chapters 4 and 5 in your textbook can help you decide what kind of free writing you want to do, but don’t feel restricted by one genre. Write down everything that pertains to your topic, including questions your readers might have. Don’t worry about grammar or sentence structure; this is a brainstorming activity.

Part II

Next, create an outline as a preliminary structure for the narrative essay, be sure to include the following:

Outline in three to five parts only

Don’t describe; summarize

Outline whole sentences only

You may use as many of the other rules as you feel necessary. The goal is to present a structure for how your final essay may look. As such, an outline is not a series of paragraphs or a rough draft.

Part 4 (week 3 assign)

This essay explores the Narrative Mode, which is perhaps the most natural style of writing for most people.

One of the goals of the narrative form is to allow readers to feel as if they are not simply reading someone else's story, but that they are somehow part of it.Unlike simply telling a story though, a narrative essay has a specific piece of information to share, a lesson for the reader.There should be a clear reason for your telling the story.This is where the “essay” in the narrative essay becomes apparent.

Your assignment this week is to write such an essay. Refer back to your outline of a significant event that you wrote for W2.Keep in mind that you are writing a story and it is important to freely tell your story.But, this is still an academic essay.The goal of your story is to support a clearly stated thesis/lesson for the reader.As such, your tale should be wrapped in a clear introduction and conclusion.


Your essay should contain the following basic features:

An introduction with an attention grabbing opening (hook), a well-defined message or argument (thesis), and any background information the reader needs to fully understand your story;

Body paragraphs which a tell the story of your clear and specific, singular event that illustrates the essay thesis;

Vivid language that works to recreate the event, including descriptions of where the event took place, the people who were involved, and the things these people said and did;

A conclusion that briefly implicitly or explicitly reviews your story, reiterates the lessons you learned and that you hope the reader to learn, and provides a closing thought such as

owhy this event is still personally significant,

othe state of your life since the event and how you feel about it,

ofuture plans related to the event,

orhetorical questions for the reader, etc.

In addition to the above, the final draft of your essay should be:

From 250-500 words in length, typed in Times New Roman 12pt. font, double-spaced, with one-inch margins.

Uses APA style (a title page and citations as needed which are modeled in your APA guide),

Written in first person;

Edited for spelling, mechanical, grammatical, and typing errors

Part 5

This week, you will be changing gears and moving from narrative writing to beginning on the informative paper. For this assignment, please review the directions for the Week 5 assignment and think of a topic you feel would be appropriate for an informative paper. Then, once you have that idea, you will complete an outline for that essay (please base your outline structure off the example outline).

For your outline, please complete ALL of the following statements or questions:

The audience for my paper is ___________

What I want them to do/think is _________

Which essay prompt am I focusing on?

What is my topic?

What is the goal of my essay?

What details will I need to accomplish this goal?

What issues might I encounter?

What is my working title?

Part 6 (week 5 assign)

For this assignment, write an Informative Essay. Choose one of the following: a Profile or a How-to essay. See below for details:

a. Profile: Interview someone you do not know or do not know well. Find an “angle” that will make this person unique or interesting to readers and focus on this angle in your profile. Describe the person so the reader has a dominant impression of him or her. Work in quotes from your subject as necessary. Do not refer to yourself in the essay.

Note: Do not turn in your interview. Your Profile should be written in essay form, not as a series of questions and answers.

b. How-to: Write an essay explaining how to do something specialized or out of the ordinary. Make your essay interesting and engaging, and write to a specific audience that needs to know or can benefit from learning how to perform this task. (For example, everyone needs to know how to change a tire, but an essay about changing a tire will be more effective if it targets college freshmen who commute to campus.) Include several of the Eight Teaching Tips and be sure to avoid COIK. Do not refer to yourself in the essay.

Additional requirements for your Informative Essay:

500-700 words

APA Style (title page, running heads, 12-pt. Times New Roman, double spaced, etc.)

Part 7

This essay explores the persuasive mode, one of the more common kinds of writing you’ll experience throughout your college and professional career. Your goal is to persuade your audience to consider your position on a controversial, two-sided subject.

This five paragraph persuasive essay (introduction, 3 body paragraphs and a conclusion) is made up of the following:

A clear persuasive thesis statement in the first paragraph after the topic is introduced and the importance of the issue is clear to the reader

Logical transitions between the into, the body, and the conclusion

Body paragraphs that support the persuasive thesis with evidence as well as address the opposing viewpoints

A conclusion that wraps up all the information presented in the body

Utilize your pre-writing and outlining strategies from week two to help you organize and plan your essay. It is not required to have research and source material for this essay, though it can greatly help support your argument. Using sources shows how your ideas build upon the ideas of previous writers and why your claims merit consideration — because they are supported by credible experts in their field.


The rough draft of your essay should contain the following basic features:

A well-defined issue that is controversial by nature

A clear thesis statement that demonstrates the position you will be taking throughout the essay

A counter argument with at least one credible source defending the opposing viewpoint

A refutation to or compromise with the counter argument

In addition to the above, the rough draft of your essay should be:

From 500 to 700 words in length, typed in Times New Roman, 12pt. font, double-spaced, with one inch margins

Written primarily in third person

Edited for spelling, mechanical, grammatical, and typing errors

Part 8

This assignment calls for you to revise your Persuasive Essay from week six into a final draft.All good writers revise their work, often multiple times. Revising isn’t just looking for grammatical errors; editing alone is not revision (though we do want you to edit too). Revision literally means to “see again.” In the revision process, you improve your analytical skills, sometimes challenging your own ideas which can serve to deepen your argument.

Review the feedback your instructor provided on your rough draft as well as the information from the peer review in week seven.As you begin revising your paper, be sure to consider the following:

Did I fulfill the assignment criteria?

Did I say what I intended to say?

Do I have a two-sided topic?

Is my thesis persuasive in nature?

Do all my paragraphs serve to support my thesis?

Is my argument convincing, my support logical, my evidence sufficient?

Does my conclusion sum up the essay?


The final draft of your essay should contain the same basic features as the rough draft:

A well-defined issue that is controversial by nature

A clear thesis statement that demonstrates the position you will be taking throughout the essay

A counter argument with at least one credible source defending the opposing viewpoint

A refutation to or compromise with the counter argument

From 500 to 700 words in length, typed in Times New Roman, 12pt. font, double-spaced, with one inch margins

Written primarily in third person

Edited for spelling, mechanical, grammatical, and typing errors

Part 9

Now that you have completed your Narrative Essay, reflect back on this process, how it went, and what you’ve learned from it. Write a brief reflection journal in which you address the following questions (from The Writer’s Way, p. P-6):

1.What just happened? (What did I/we do?)

2.What was the purpose? (Why did I/we do it?)

3.What did it say? (What was the content?) [For this question, identify one concept from the readings, lessons, or discussions pertaining to this assignment that seemed significant to you. Be specific.]

4.What was the point?

5.How can I use this?

Important: Do not write just one-sentence answers to the above questions. Write at least a paragraph for each.

You do not have to use APA Style for this assignment, but your journal must use 12-pt. Times New Roman and be double spaced.

Part 10

Now that you have completed your Informative Essay, reflect back on this process, how it went, what you’ve learned from it, and what you might do differently the next time. Write a brief reflection journal in which you address the following questions.

1.What just happened? (What did I/we do?)

2.What was the purpose? (Why did I/we do it?)

3.What did it say? (What was the content?) [For this question, identify one concept from the readings, lessons, or discussion pertaining to this assignment that seemed significant to you. Be specific.]

4.What was the point?

5.How can I use this?

Important: Do not write just one-sentence answers to the above questions. Write at least a paragraph for each.

You do not have to use APA Style for this assignment, but your journal must use 12-pt. Times New Roman and be double spaced.

Part 11

Now that you have completed your Persuasive Rough Draft, reflect back on this process, how it went, what you’ve learned from it, and what you might do differently the next time. Write a brief reflection journal in which you address the following questions

1.What just happened? (What did I/we do?)

2.What was the purpose? (Why did I/we do it?)

3.What did it say? (What was the content?) [For this question, identify one concept from the readings, lessons, or discussion pertaining to this assignment that seemed significant to you. Be specific.]

4.What was the point?

5.How can I use this?

Important: Do not write just one-sentence answers to the above questions. Write at least a paragraph for each.

You do not have to use APA Style for this assignment, but your journal must use 12-pt. Times New Roman and be double spaced.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Title of Essay Your Name Name of Your College/University Abstract This paper serves as a template that can be downloaded onto your own computer. Simply replace the existing text with your own text; be sure to retain the formatting that exists in this template. This paper discusses and illustrates some of the formatting rules found in the APA style guide, including the abstract, body, and the references page. Abstracts are typically less than one page in length, approximately 150 words. This word restriction requires a concise, objective summary of the topic/argument and presentation of results or conclusions. Therefore, the abstract is written upon completion of the paper. Personal opinions should not be included in the abstract; this must be an objective overview of the paper. Notice that the first line of the abstract is not indented; rather, it is left-aligned. Meanwhile, the right margin looks “jagged;” this format is known as “flush left.” At the end of the abstract, there should be a page break to separate the abstract from the body of the paper. Two significant resources for writing in APA style include a video which demonstrates how to use features in Microsoft Word to set up the paper in a specific style guide format (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ODakMMqvIs) and the online writing lab at Purdue University (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/). Title of Essay Centered on the First Line Online college students often wonder why the APA style guide is required for their written assignments. After all, the Publication Manual of the American Psychology Association specifies guidelines for the preparation of scientific manuscripts for researchers who submit their papers to scholarly journals for publication. With that specific purpose, why should college students be required to adhere to these guidelines? This question serves as the introduction to the discussion of implementing the APA style guide in written assignments. The introduction to the paper should present the topic or research question in an interesting way that will pique the reader’s interest. An introduction makes the “purpose, worth and need” (Algozzine, Spooner, & Karvonen, 2002, p. 25) for the paper explicit to the reader. “A common practice in preparing this section of the article is to use several paragraphs to discuss other studies pointing to different opinions or raising questions that have been answered in the study,” according to Algozzine, Spooner, & Karvonen (2002, p. 25). This paper presents three distinct reasons for the APA style guide requirement: first, use of APA style facilitates readability through consistent formatting; second, the APA format reduces the likelihood of committing plagiarism; and third, the APA format ensures that readers who are interested in the references cited may find the original sources. These reasons are all part of the creation and transmission of knowledge in the academic world. Consistent Formatting Enhances Readability The Publication Manual of the American Psychology Association, commonly referred to as the APA style guide or informally as APA format, provides rules and examples of formatting a manuscript. Formatting refers to how the pages are set up, and also how citations of original sources are presented. Page Formatting In the body of the paper, each page should contain the title of the paper in the page header. Additionally, the page number should appear in the top right corner, also in the page header. Each paragraph in the body should be doubled-spaced and indented by one-half inch. The margins should be 1” all around. The author should use 12 point Times New Roman font, except where the APA format indicates use of another font (such as for titling Figures). Headings. To enhance readability, the author should use headings to organize the flow of the paper. Headings provide clarity regarding the outline, or hierarchical organization of the topics in the paper. There are five levels of headings, according to the Publication Manual (2009). Level 1 headings (such as the heading “Consistent Formatting Enhances Readability” above) should be centered and boldface. Just as in titles, the main words in the heading are uppercase, while the smaller words remain lowercase. Additional levels of headings. Level 2 headings (such as “Page Formatting” above) should be left-aligned, boldface, and exist on its own line in the paper. The main words in the Level 2 heading are uppercase, while the smaller words remain lowercase. Level 3 headings (such as the heading “Headings” at the beginning of the previous paragraph) appear at the beginning of a paragraph and should be indented, boldface, and followed by a period. Level 3 headings contain both uppercase and lowercase letters, as appropriate. Level 4 headings (such as “Additional levels of headings” above) appear at the beginning of a paragraph, and should start with an uppercase letter but followed by lowercase letters; the heading should be both italicized and boldface, with a period at the end (Hawks, 2010). Example of last level of heading. Finally, the last level of headings should introduce a paragraph, be italicized, be capitalized at the beginning, and end with a period. It is not necessary to use all five levels of headings in a paper; only papers that contain this depth of organization require these different types of headings. A good rule of thumb is to first outline the paper to see how many levels of organization are included; for each level in the outline, the appropriate heading should be used in the text of the paper. Reduce Likelihood of Committing Plagiarism When writing papers, students must consult other sources in order to demonstrate their ability to learn from others, advance an argument, and compare differing aspects of the counterarguments. This is how academics (people who are also known as scholars) advance the knowledge in their fields. Additionally, researchers must explore the literature prior to conducting their own research studies; reference to other scholarly works is essential. The greatest concern for any author should be appropriately citing the sources used in their papers. Failure to do so results in a charge of plagiarism. For academics and researchers, this can be a career-ender; for college students, this can result in failing the assignment, failing the course, or being expelled from school. Thus, adhering to the APA style guide is one way to engage with the academic community in an ethical manner. Citations occur in two ways: in-text citations, and the references page. In-text Citations When referencing ideas or concepts that are already published, the college student should give proper credit to those authors. The best way to acknowledge the authors is to cite the artifact (article, book, webpage, etc.) as it is introduced in the written assignment. Examples of citing a source. College instructors have used a variety of methods to teach students how to identify proper usage of APA style (Smith & Eggleston, 2001; Luttrell, Bufkin, Eastman, & Miller, 2010). In one example, the Scientific Writing course was developed as a one credit course to help psychology students master the elements of APA style. The course instructor explained that the course focused on “database searches, title pages and abstracts, reduction of language bias, in-text citations, numbers and abbreviations, and reference lists” (Luttrell et al., 2010, p. 193). Notice the first instance of citing sources in the preceding paragraph. In the first example, the citation consisted of two sources which reported methods for teaching students how to use APA style. The two sources were listed alphabetically in parentheses. In the second example, following a direct quotation, the source was listed along with the page number on which the direct quote could be found. These are the two primary ways in which students will credit the original authors for their words, thoughts or concepts, thus reducing the likelihood of committing plagiarism. The References Page Every college-level writing assignment should conclude with a References page. At the end of the paper, insert a page break to separate the References page from the body of the paper. Upon closer inspection of the References page in this template, notice that the running head (title of the paper) continues to appear in the top header, along with the page number in the right hand corner. The word “References” is centered on the first line of the page. Each source is listed, following a specific format. The “hanging indent” format is used, in which the first line of the source is left-aligned, while the additional lines of the source are indented one-half inch. This format enhances readability. The sources are listed in alphabetical order, which helps readers to find the sources that they wish to investigate further. Pay special attention to the requirements for punctuating, italicizing, and spacing the entries. For additional help with these specifications, the writer may consult the online writing lab (OWL) at Purdue University (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/). Note that every entry in the References page should be referred to in the body of the paper (hence, the name “References.”) It is not appropriate to list sources in the References section that have not been used in the body of the paper. Conversely, every source that is used in the paper should also have an entry in the References page. Even though writers may consult several sources prior to writing the paper, they may find that they will not include several of the sources. It is helpful to keep a list, or make index cards, for sources that are actually used in the paper. Before turning in the paper, writers should check to make sure all sources have been accounted for through in-text citations and on the References page. APA Style Helps Readers Find Original Sources As noted previously, the References page is one way in which writers can reduce likelihood of plagiarism. Additionally, the References page is a resource which readers will want to consult as they consider their own research interests. Every writer has learned that consulting the References page of published articles leads to a goldmine of resources that may not have appeared in the initial database search. Thus, by providing a References page, each writer is contributing to the academic conversation by assisting other writers with resources. Conclusion APA style provides strict guidelines for the preparation of academic papers; these guidelines facilitate the transmission of knowledge from writer to reader. Authors who wish to publish their manuscripts must adhere to the proper formatting guidelines in order to be accepted (Robins, 2009). College students who wish to be successful in demonstrating their knowledge must likewise adhere to the proper formatting guidelines. The benefits of applying the APA style include enhanced readability, reduced likelihood of committing plagiarism, and increased facility for readers to pursue the cited sources for their own research purposes. For these reasons, it is important for college writers to understand and apply the APA format when completing written assignments. Hopefully, students will realize that the written assignment is not just a course requirement; it is potentially a part of the academic tradition in which writers share their thoughts and ideas so that new knowledge can be created and transformed by others in the academic community. References Algozzine, B., Spooner, F. & Karvonen, M. (2002) Preparing special education research articles in APA style. Remedial & Special Education, 23(1), 24-30. American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (2nd printing). Washington, D.C.: APA. Hawks, J. H. (2010). Transitioning to the latest publication manual of the APA. Urologic Nursing, 30(1), 11-12. Luttrell, V. R., Bufkin, J. L., Eastman, V. J., & Miller, R. (2010). Teaching scientific writing: Measuring student learning in an intensive APA skills course. Teaching of Psychology, 37(3), 193-195. doi: 10.1080/00986283.2010.488531 Robins, J. (2009). The first word: A letter from the publications editor: A look at the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual. Journal of Advanced Academics, 21(1), 5-7. Smith, G. E., & Eggleston, T. J. (2001). Comprehending APA style through manuscript analysis. Teaching of Psychology, 28(2), 108-110. Writing & Documenting in APA A Concise Guide for GU Students Part One: Formatting in APA Style Tanya A. Klatt, MA; Timothy P. Goss, MA; and Alexander V. Ames, Ph.D 1 What is APA? The term APA refers to a style of writing, including formatting, documentation of sources, tone, organization of ideas, and so on, as determined by the American Psychological Association. For many students, the very idea of having to learn APA, no less to write in that style, is terrifying. We understand that. Most of us felt the same way when we encountered one of these writing styles for the first time. That is exactly what we are doing here. There are several different styles of documentation available to the academic writer (e.g. MLA, Chicago, etc.), depending upon his or her field of study. Here at Grantham, we use the APA style because it best fits the disciplinary needs of most of our degree programs. We use APA for the following reasons: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. APA standardizes the way documents appear. For most assignments, teachers evaluate ideas, not one’s skills in document design. We use APA to be fair. APA defines the way we should give credit to our sources. We use APA to be transparent. APA helps the organization of the material in a document. If we all present our information in the same way, our readers can engage with our ideas more quickly and more completely. We use APA to be efficient and thorough (Goss, 2012, para. 9). APA is the accepted standard style or, at least, an appropriate style for the fields of study and professions aligned with the overwhelming majority of our degree programs. We use APA to meet industry standards. APA is our established University-wide style because settling on a single style allows us-students, faculty, and administrators--to avoid any confusion resulting from using a variety of styles. We use APA to remain consistent. Think Monopoly. Any board game has its own specific rules that everyone who plays has to follow. APA, while arguably more important than a simple board game, is still just that: a game; one with specific rules to follow and certain rewards and penalties for following or not following those rules. This guide has been put together to help alleviate some of the fear you may have about APA by defining the parameters of the APA environment and by clearly spelling out the way this game works. Our goal is not to make you APA experts in the short time we have to work together. These things take time to perfect, so you should not expect to learn everything right away. Our goal is instead to make you aware of the basic skills you need to format and write an APA style paper, and to give you the knowledge to explain some basic principles of APA should you run across the topic in a conversation (if this happens, you may need to attend better parties). Learning APA will help you to write better academic papers by helping you to work with the ideas of others while avoiding plagiarism and by helping to organize your ideas more clearly and concisely so they are more easily received by your readers. 2 Using this Guide Before you get started learning APA, you’ll need to know how to get the most out of this guide Throughout your courses, you will see a list of things you need to read and write in order complete the work for that week. Because each assignment may cause you to call on a different set of writing skills, it may be a good idea to refer to this guide frequently for detailed information concerning the various components of the APA style. This guide has been set into four parts: 1. Formatting in APA Style; 2. Plagiarism; 3. Academic Tone, Documenting and Citing; and 4. Proofreading, APA and the Internet. Each of these parts build on the information found in the previous parts, but they have also been designed to work as individual reference guides. It is a good idea to read each part in succession, and then reference the work as needed. We hope this helps you throughout your education here at Grantham University. *Note that the written materials for this guide are instructional. Though the writers of this course took measures to mirror academic tone when applicable and to strictly follow APA guidelines, the purpose and audience for this course demanded that the writers approached these lessons in a broader format. **This guide follows the standardized APA rules set forth in The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed.). Formatting in APA style Every paper that is submitted for grading through a writing assignment drop box should be formatted according to APA style. The following example paper illustrates how a properly formatted paper should look. To help simplify the process, we have placed an APA Template in the Course Resources folder to help you when formatting your work in APA style. Terms to know: If you are unfamiliar with these terms please review them in the Glossary. flush left: flush right hanging indent running head /page header tab title block 3 Title Page All words on the page, including the Header Section, are to be in Times New Roman, 12pt font. Running heads are flush left. Page numbers are flush right. The running head is an abbreviated title (no more than 50 characters, or five words). The title in the Header Section should be in ALL CAPS. The Title Block should be centered; spaced two inches below the bottom of the Header Section; and include a full title, your name, and Grantham University. This is all of the information you should include on the title page. 4 Abstract Note that an abstract is generally not required for shorter academic papers. Ask your instructor if you are not sure whether or not to include one. Abstracts are short summaries of the following paper. They are meant to be a research tool that helps potential readers know if the ideas in the paper are something they could use in their own work. These abstracts are generally limited to 150-250 words. They should present an accurate, nonevaluative, concise summary of your paper. The personal opinion of the author is strictly prohibited in abstracts. 5 Body Paragraph # one Body paragraphs start on a new page. Running head and numbers continue, but the words Running head, no longer appear. The title is centered on top of the first paragraph. Text should be justified flush left. The right margin should remain “ragged.” 6 Body Paragraph # two All margins in the document should be set to one inch. The beginning of each paragraph is indented one tab. All paragraphs in the document should be doublespaced without extra spacing between paragraphs. 7 Body Paragraph # three Papers with a page requirement rather than a word requirement only count the body pages. This paper, though six pages in length, would only account for a two and one-half page paper. 8 References Page The References page is on its own page. The page should always be titled “References” (without quotation marks) and should be center justified. *Note: Even if only one reference is used, the title of this page is still plural. Citations are double spaced and listed in alphabetical order. Opposite to the body paragraphs, the first line of each citation is flush left, while a hanging indent is used for each following line of the citation. All citations should be organized in APA 6th edition format. 9 References American Psychological Association. (2010). The publication manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Goss, T. P. (2012). Guide to APA: Some perspective, please. [Weblog]. Retrieved from http://blog.grantham.edu/blog/bid/119294/Guide-to-APA-Style-Some-PerspectivePlease. Goss, T. P., Klatt, T. A., & Ames, A. V. (2012). How I write: A guide to academic writing. Kansas City, MO: Grantham University Press. © Grantham University 2012 10 Writing & Documenting in APA A Concise Guide for GU Students Part Two: Avoiding Plagiarism Tanya A. Klatt, MA; Timothy P. Goss, MA; and Alexander V. Ames, Ph.D 11 What is Plagiarism? According to the Grantham University Catalog and Student Handbook (2012): “plagiarism is presenting the ideas or work of others (including other students) as his/her original work” (“Plagiarism,” p. 46). When we do this, we are guilty of cheating. Blatant plagiarism is the same as looking at someone else’s paper during an exam and stealing their answers. Plagiarism is, above and beyond all other things, the worst academic crime one can commit. Being found guilty of plagiarism can cause one to fail an assignment, fail a class, or be kicked out of school. So why do we not simply call plagiarism cheating? Unfortunately, plagiarism is not just about cheating. If it were, we would simply say, “don’t cheat” and then deal with those students who purposefully broke the rules, but there is more to the story. Plagiarism can also occur when we fail to cite our sources properly or if we rely too heavily on the work of others. As a college student, you will be expected to work with the ideas and words of others, but you will also be expected to learn how to give the necessary credit in the right way. You will be expected to, in most cases, develop and present your own words and ideas, and only use other people to enhance what you are saying, not to dictate what you are saying. To put the nature of writing academically into perspective, you need to know that a paper is a written document that demonstrates what you think and know about a topic, and it shows the time you have spent thinking about, analyzing, interacting with, and synthesizing the ideas of others who stand as experts in the field of study. A paper is a reflection of your ideas, not a reflection of what you have read. We give these experts credit through in-text and References page documentation. We will talk more about that as we move forward in the class, but it is never too early to start thinking about this process. We cite our sources for two reasons: First, because the author worked to develop his or her own ideas, and it is unethical to steal those ideas; second, and possibly the more important of our reasons, we identify our sources so our readers can engage in the same research we did, should they choose to, and be better able to understand what we are saying. If you would like to understand more about plagiarism so you can avoid it in your future work, the following tutorial should help you stay on the right path. 12 Avoiding Plagiarism Terms to Know: If you are unfamiliar with these terms please review them in the Glossary. block quotation copyright direct quotation paraphrase summary plagiarism Plagiarism is presenting the ideas or work of others (including other students) as his/her original work. A student is required to acknowledge all sources of submitted work. Specifically, each student must acknowledge direct quotations, paraphrases, ideas, figures, tables, charts, statistics, images, photographs, source codes, circuits, and other sources. Papers and other materials either given to the student or obtained otherwise, if submitted as the work of anyone except the source, constitute a violation of the code of conduct. (“Plagiarism,” 2012, p. 46) To be more specific, plagiarism includes: a. Copying word-for-word from the web or other source and using it in your paper or discussion forum post as “your” writing. b. Paraphrasing from a source without giving credit. c. Paraphrasing incorrectly even if you provided a citation. Ensure that no more than three words in a row match the source document and that your sentence organization doesn’t mirror the original document. . Types of Plagiarism When the subject of plagiarism comes up, students will often respond with: “What if the plagiarism was unintentional?” This is a good question. While your instructors will work to help you improve your citation skills, it is ultimately your responsibility to learn to avoid these unintentional errors. Still, we do make a distinction between types of plagiarism. 13 Blatant Plagiarism: Blatant plagiarism occurs when a student presents a piece of writing that has very little original student work. These papers are often pieced together from several online sources or they match another piece of writing word-for-word. This type of plagiarism is blatant; it is cheating and therefore cannot be accepted for credit and is subject to punitive action. Do not, under any circumstances, turn in a piece of writing that is not your own work. If you are caught, you will not like the results. Improper Documentation: Improper documentation happens when a student paper has several documentation errors that result in plagiarism, but most of the paper was authored by the student. This usually happens when students are in a rush, haven’t read the course material, or they didn’t understand the rules for APA style. Many students might consider theses errors to be unintentional, but managing time, reading the course material, and asking for clarification on assignments are all student responsibilities. Learning how and when to cite is therefore, incredibly important. Until you are completely comfortable with the process: 1. Review the Documentation Section of this APA guide. 2. Ask your instructor for clarification 3. Submit your paper to the Writing Center for review. 4. Run your paper through a plagiarism checker. 5. If you don’t have time to do the above, ask your instructor for a lesson extension. It is better to request more time than to submit a document with errors. Buying, purchasing, copying, or piece-mailing the work of others and turning it in as your own is NOT unintentional plagiarism. How do I give credit to a source? You must include a citation after each quote or paraphrased passage. You must also have a References page attached to the end of your paper. The citation in text should always pair with a citation in the reference page. If you have unmatched citations in either the body of your text or the reference page, your instructor may suspect plagiarism. When we work with the ideas or creations of others, we have to document where we found our information. We do this for two reasons: 1. Not to do so is cheating. 1. So we can track information to its original source to verify its validity and expand our knowledge on the subject. 14 If we were to write the following passage, for example, we would need to cite within the text of our paper: We’ve cited in the text, but we’re not done yet; now we have to put together our References page: Notice how the in-text citations within the text are paired with the citations in the References page. In-texts citations are like tabs in the text. If we are reading the above text, for instance, and we want to know more about what we are reading, we can simply find the in-text citation, 15 Benson, for example, and then find the full citation in the References page. That way, we can look up the original author, track the progression of this idea, verify its validity, and find out more about the topic. As writers, we make choices about what to add into our work, and what to leave out. By providing our sources, we don’t just give the proper credit to those who informed our work, we also are able to afford our readers the opportunity to experience the things we could not fit into our paper. *Note that the passages in the above examples are for illustrative purposes only. These are not real sources and do not reflect actual facts. Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism: 1. If you quote from a source you need an in-text citation and a work-cited entry. 2. Anything copied word-for-word must be inside of quotation marks. 3. If you paraphrase from your source, you need an in-text citation and a References page entry. 4. If you have a lengthy quote (forty words or more), according to APA guidelines, you will need to indent it as a block quotation. Be careful with long quotations. Anything more than 20% of your paper in quotations can be counted as plagiarism. Remember that quotes and paraphrased material should support your writing, not take it over. 5. Quotes and paraphrasing must be properly integrated into your paper. An entire paragraph of paraphrased material might set off a plagiarism checker. Once again, your researched material should play a supporting role and not a lead role. Never produce a paragraph that is 100% quoted or cited material. 6. You should never cut-and-paste an online paper or article and submit it as your work. This is blatant plagiarism and it will be reported to the university for possible punitive action. 7. Be careful when using quoted material found inside of your source (secondary sources). If you want to use the quotation, it is good practice to search for the original article online and cite the original work. Not citing a secondary source properly can redflag your paper for plagiarism. If you use quoted material from another source, cite the primary source and add the word In to the citation: (In Greives, 2004). 8. Do not use papers you have written for other classes or published papers. This includes papers you submitted on a blog or anywhere else on the Internet. Submitting previously written material for a lesson in class is called self-plagiarism. Self-plagiarism is prohibited at Grantham University. 16 9. Never post any content (lessons, lesson directions, tests, etc) anywhere on the Internet as this violates copyright laws. All of the lessons, tests, and texts found in GLIFE and your ANGEL courses are copyrighted by Grantham University. Students do not have permission to paste or upload Grantham material on the web - period. If a student is found to have posted Grantham materials (lessons, questions, tests, etc) on the Internet this could lead to expulsion from the University and serious legal trouble. Violating copyright law is not just an academic blunder, it is also a crime. 10. Never cut and paste word-for-word material into your document with the intention of applying proper documentation later. Always write first and add your research later. Do not take short cuts with your documentation. Make 3x5 note cards or keep a list documenting the raw data on every article you think you may use, along with the passage you plan to either directly quote or paraphrase. A Visual Guide to Help Avoid Plagiarism (Komm, 2012) 17 References Komm, A. (2012). Avoiding plagiarism flow chart. Grantham University, Kansas City, MO. Plagiarism. (2012). In Grantham University: University catalog and student handbook. Retrieved from http://www.grantham.edu/public_media/PDF-University-Catalog2012.pdf © Grantham University 2012 18 Writing & Documenting in APA A Concise Guide for GU Students Part Three: Academic Tone, Documentation, and Citing Tanya A. Klatt, MA; Timothy P. Goss, MA; and Alexander V. Ames, Ph.D 19 Academic Tone and APA Terms to Know: If you are unfamiliar with these terms, please review them in the Glossary. point of view first person second person third person contractions sexist language cliches While not everything you will be asked to write will follow strict academic tone, it is important to get to know the difference between writing in a personal environment, a professional environment, and in the academic environment (i.e. a University classroom, including an online classroom such as this). Throughout the course, you see a great deal of attention paid to the importance of taking your reader into account. In no situation, perhaps, is this more true than when one is writing for an academic (i.e. scholarly) audience, including adhering to APA style. Note the differences in style and tone in the following examples. In each instance, each of the three statements communicates more or less the same idea (to a greater or lesser extent), but does so in a style and with a tone distinguishing it from the other statements Example One: Personal I’m going to have to cancel the game tonight. It’s raining cats and dogs and the field is underwater. We’ll pick this up next week. Professional Due to excessive water on the field caused by the rain, the employee softball game will be canceled tonight. Per company policy, we will reschedule the game for next week. Academic Weather delays are one of the few drawbacks for outdoor sports. Often, rain causes games to be either delayed or rescheduled. Such were the circumstances in the case of the game originally scheduled for this evening, which will have to be rescheduled due to a rainfall of more than four inches within the last twenty-four hours. Example Two: Personal: You really shouldn’t wear such revealing clothing at work. It’s distracting and you might get sent home or fired. 20 Professional: All employees at DCH Lenders should wear appropriate clothing while working. Appropriate clothing guidelines are set forth in the employee handbook and published on the company website. Academic: Professionals should refer to established company policies when choosing their work attire. Many corporations require traditional, formal, attire of their employees in order to positively impress the public, specifically clients and potential clients, and to minimize distractions to their employees in the workplace. DCH Lenders, for example, sets specific dress codes for their employees and communicate those policies through their employee handbook and company website. Notice the increased formality of the Professional style in comparison with the Personal style. The professionally styled text is matter of fact, reading almost as if it were a legal document. Now, compare both the examples of the Professional and Personal style with the examples of Academic style. What differences do you notice? Like the examples of the Professional style, the Academic style is more formal than the personal, and more detailed and precise than either the Personal or Professional style. The examples of the Personal style may rely upon a degree of familiarity between writer and reader, which allows for merely suggestive statements as “you really shouldn’t wear such revealing clothing at work …” (e.g. what qualifies as “revealing?”). The Professional style may be concise in its own, direct, way (e.g. statements may read as pronouncements because --in the case of the dress code--the author is simply issuing employees a directive, not trying to convince them of the justice of the dress code in question). Contrastingly, the examples of the Academic style are not only formal in tone, they are far more detailed than those of the other styles because they must present the academic reader with precise evidence of the claims being made. 21 Documentation: Overview Terms to Know: If you are unfamiliar with these terms please review them in the Glossary. attributive tag citation documentation in-text citation source When utilizing ideas other than your own in a document of your own authorship, whether it is a chapter from your Grantham text, a quote from an article you have found through your research, or a personal interview, always attribute those ideas to their authors (i.e you always need to do the following): ● Integrate the borrowed idea with your original ideas. This is done by using attributive tags (also known as signal phrases). ● Provide an in-text citation. This means that you need to include an abbreviated citation of your source material in the body of your paper. In-text citations should always appear after the borrowed the material and not at the end of each paragraph. This signals to the reader that what they just read was borrowed material and the in-text citation will give them the information they need to find that particular source in the reference page. ● Create a full list of the research sources used at the end of the paper. This is an alphabetized list that provides the reader with the full data they need to located the article. A basic citation will include the following: authors name, source title, and the full publication information. We will discuss how we do these three things throughout this guide. Our goal, in terms of documentation, is to help you construct a basic understanding of how and where to cite your sources, so that this process becomes a natural step in your writing process and so it will not be so difficult to do in your later coursework. Here at Grantham University you will be expected to adhere to APA style. With that in mind, anytime a source is used in a paper an in-text citation, a References page is needed to give credit to the author of the original idea. 22 Basic APA Constructions Each reference or source within an APA-style paper appears in two places: 1). within the text following a quotation, summarized, or paraphrased passage, and 2). in a References page. In-text citations (aka. parenthetical citations) show what material is being used at what point within the text, while References page citations show where that reference or source can be found externally. APA citations are constructed using a basic format: In-Text Citations When using a source or reference, you need to create an in-text citation that includes three basic elements: The author’s or authors’ last names—if no author, use the first five or fewer words of the title of the source. Encase the title in quotation marks. The year of publication—if no year, use the letters n.d. (meaning “no date”) The page or paragraph number—page numbers are preceded with p. for one page, pp. for multiple pages. Paragraphs are used if there are no page numbers and are preceded with para. These elements should appear within parentheses and follow the quotation or information being cited. (author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page or paragraph number) For Example: (Collins, Magnolia, & Hyde, 2004, pp. 341-349). (Phillips, n.d., para. 7). (“Eating with style,” 1987, p. 116). References Page Citations References page citations are grouped on their own page at the end of a paper. The first word or words of the Reference page citation should match the corresponding first word or words of the in-text citation. References page citations can take on many forms, however, they do follow a basic structure. The last name of the author or authors, each followed by their first initial(s) The year of publication (add the month if available) The name of the text If part of a collection (website, anthology, journal, magazine, etc.), the name of that source The publisher After this stage, References page citations fluctuate depending on the type of text being cited. 23 BASIC CITATION EXAMPLES (References page and in-text citations) The following list reflects some of the more common citations you will likely use throughout your education. Book Harris, J. (2006). Rewriting: How to do things with texts. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press. (Harris, 2006, p. 24). Chapter or Section within a Book Braddock, R., Lloyd-Jones, R., & Schoer, L. (2009). From Research in Written Composition. In S. Miller (Ed.), The Norton book of composition studies. (pp. 193-215). New York: W. W. Norton and Company. (Braddock, Lloyd-Jones, & Schoer, 2009, pp. 193-215). Online Journal Article with doi Bercovitch, F. B., & Berry, P. M. (2012). Ecological determinates of herd size in the Thornicroft’s giraffe of Zambia. African Journal of Ecology, 48(4), 962-971. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01198.x (Bercovitch & Berry, 2012, 969-970). Online Journal Article without doi Stanczak, S. (2009). Write what you know, and know what you write. Writer, 122(11), 14 (Stanczak, 2009, p. 14). 24 Corporate Author or Government Report National Park Service, National Trails Intermountain Region. (2012). About Challenge Cost Share FY 2012. Retrieved from http://www.nps.gov/trte/parkmgmt/ upload/About-CCSP-FY12-SF_SB.pdf (National Park Service, 2012, para. 4). Motion Picture Mark, L. (Producer), & Van Sant. G. (Director). (2000). Finding Forrester [Motion picture]. United States of America: Columbia Pictures. (Mark, 2000). Legal Case Missouri v. Cuffley, 927 F. Supp. 1248 (E.D. Mo 1996) (Missouri v. Cuffley, 1996). Website USA Today. (2012, June 06). Army to review mental health compensation. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/news/psycport/ PsycPORTArticle.aspx?id=usatoday_2012_06_06_eng-usatoday_news_engusatoday_news_023107_3675750032905271303.xml (USA Today, 2012). 25 Blog Teicheira, D. (2012, April 26). 6 useful ways proofreading can save your research paper [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.grantham.edu/ blog/bid/124655/6Useful-Ways-Proofreading-Can-Save-Your-Research-Paper (Teicheria, 2012) Ideas to Remember: ● APA is the only approved documentation style at Grantham University ● The EBSCOhost Database is the preferred research source for many Grantham classes ●Students should include in-text citations and a references page for outside sources used in a paper, journal, or other writing assignment. APA documentation in discussion forums is also highly encouraged in all courses and required in many. If you don’t know how this works in your particular class, ask your instructor. Citations in the EBSCOhost Database This guide will cover the basic citation styles you will see in EBSCO. EBSCO citation tool: see the link under the Resources tab within the course. EBSCO errors: Althought EBSCO has citation tools that you can use to create full sources citations, you will still need to check your citations against the guide below. Some known EBSCO errors are: Title or author’s name in ALL-CAPS Titles with capitalization after the first word. Improper citations for six or more authors. If you spot these errors after using the EBSCO citation tool you will need to revise the citation in your paper. 26 What is a doi? Because the URLs of web sites and other web-based/online resources we need to reference can often change as sites, databases, etc. reorganize/relocate their contents, it is important to provide your readers with a stable link to the online materials you cite. Some online content providers now provide an alphanumeric code, known as a DOI (an acronym standing for Digital Object Identifier). If a source you cite provides a DOI, you should include it in your citation instead of the URL, placing it in the space that would otherwise be occupied by the URL in the citation in question. However, if the content provider does not make a DOI available to you should reference the URL for site, database, etc. in question. In-Text Citation Examples one author two authors three to five authors six + authors no author (Oates, 2010) (Collette & Bradbury, 2009) First citation: (Martinez, Kock, & Cass, 2011); Subsequent Citations: (Martinez et al., 2011) (Thäder-Voigt et al., 2011) (Federation of European Biochemical Societies, 1967) References Page Citation Examples Oates, J. (2010). A widow’s story. New Yorker, 86(40), 70-79. Collette, C. P., & Bradbury, N. (2009). Time, measure, and value in Chaucer's art and Chaucer's world. Chaucer Review, 43(4), 347350. three to five authors Martinez, C., Kock, N., & Cass, J. (2011). Pain and pleasure in short paper writing: Factors predicting university students' writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(5), 351-360. doi:10.1598/JAAL.54.5.5 seven + authors Kimbrell, T., Pyne, J. M., Kunik, M. E., Magruder, K. M., Petersen, N. J., Yu, H., & Qureshi, S.U. (2011). The impact of Purple Heart commendation and PTSD on mortality rates in older veterans. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 28(12), 1086-1090. doi:10.1002/da.20850 no author Federation of European Biochemical Societies (1967). European Journal of Biochemistry, 1(1), 125-127. Lewis, C.S. (1964). The discarded image: An introduction to medieval book and renaissance literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. magazine / periodical Oates, J. (2010). A widow’s story. New Yorker, 86(40), 70-79. one author two authors newspaper Vega, T. (2011, March 17). Paper admits to plagiarism by reporter. New York Times. p. A3. 27 Attributive Tags / Signal Phrases In order to help introduce our sources, it is always best to introduce quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material with an attributive tag (also known as a signal phrase). An attributive tag is simply an introduction of the author and/or his or her work. For instance, we could say: “All ducks like pickles” (Wheelhouse, 2007, p. 27). But our words would sound more credible were we to say: According to Arthur Wheelhouse (2007), “All ducks like pickles” (p. 27). If we can find the authors credentials, we can make this even better (we refer to this as “qualifying the source”): According to Pulitzer Prize winning author and naturalist Arthur Wheelhouse (2007), “All ducks like pickles” (p. 27). Now we pay attention. There must be something to that duck and pickle connection. After all, if an award-winning author is talking about it, it must be important, right? The attribute tag can be used to lend credibility to your quoted source. Therefore, if the goal of your paper is to argue about a hot political topic, you would want to point out that the author of the quote you are about to use is a political science professor. If you are discussing a children’s health topic you would want to note that your quotation is from a pediatrician. Always look at the fine print that follows your article and check the author’s credentials so you can use them to your advantage in an argument or claim. Another goal of the attributive tag is to help readers identify the author of the quotation as they read it. They will then be able to locate the full source citation in your references, and if interested, they will have the information they need to find the full text by that particular author. Basic Formula for Integrating Quotations Patrick Star (2012) declared, “...” author’s full name + year + attributive tag If we qualify our source, we might say: Marine life expert Patrick Star (2012) stated, “...” 28 If we have already used a quotation from the same author, we only use his or her last name: Star claimed, “...” Though we may feel a real connection to our sources, we are never on a first-name basis with them. We can never say, “Patrick claims . . .;” we have to say, “Star claims . . . .” It should be noted that attributive tags are not always at the beginning of a quotation. Sometimes we need to mix things up. Beginning of Sentence: In his 2008 article “Fat Toddlers” Ronald Fry suggests that “There are too many fat toddlers these days! Parents need to cut back on the amount of sugary snacks and processed food that they feed their children” (p. 9). Middle of Sentence: There are too many fat toddlers these days!” exclaims Ronald Fry in his 2008 article, “Fat Toddlers” “Parents need to cut back on the amount of sugary snacks and processed food that they feed their children” (p. 9). End of Sentence: “There are too many fat toddlers these days! Parents need to cut back on the amount of sugary snacks and processed food that they feed their children” suggests Ronald Fry in his 2008 article, “Fat Toddlers” (p. 9). Common Attributive Verbs The following list contains verbs commonly used in signal phrases: claims contends emphasizes explains expresses illustrates implies maintains points out presents proposes disputes reports states suggests writes 29 Block Quotations In APA style, if you use a quotation that is 40 words or longer, you must format your quotation according to the following rules: 1 Like all other text in the paper, block quotations are double-spaced 2. Block quotations are set apart from the rest of the text as if they are their own paragraph 3. All lines in block quotations should be indented ½ inch (one tab) from the left margin (the first line should not be further indented) 4. Citations should not be included in the end punctuation 5. Quotation marks should be removed For example: (Goss, 2012) 30 References Goss, T. P. (2012). A case for clarity. Unpublished Manuscript. © Grantham University 2012 31 Writing & Documenting in APA A Concise Guide for GU Students Part Four: Proofreading; APA & the Internet Tanya A. Klatt, MA; Timothy P. Goss, MA; and Alexander V. Ames, Ph.D 32 Proofreading for APA style As we move into the final stage of this writing project, it might be a good idea to go back and review the entire APA guide to ensure that you have all of the pieces in place for this final step. Throughout this tutorial, we will discuss some of the key areas you need to look at when proofreading to make sure your paper meets APA standards. Checking your Work This checklist should be used to ensure that your papers and documents are in proper APA style. Formatting: ● Font used is 12 pt Times New Roman. ● One inch margins on all sides. ● Running head is the title of your paper (up to 50 characters; no longer than five words). ● Running head (abbreviated title) is flush left and in ALL-CAPS. ● Page number is top, flush right, starting on the title page In-text Citations: ● Do you provide appropriate in-text (i.e. parenthetical) citations for all uses of external source material? ● Do those in-text (i.e. parenthetical) citations include all of the necessary information (e.g. author name(s), dates)? ● Do those in-text (i.e. parenthetical) citations precede the final punctuation of the sentences in which they appear? Reference Page: ● Is your References page separated from the last page of your paper with a page-break? It is important that your References page begin at the top of a new page immediately following the last page of the text of your essay, report, paper, etc. So, you need to insert a page-break (e.g. see the “insert” menu if using Microsoft Word) after the last line of the 33 text of your paper, rather than using the Return/Enter key, to ensure that your list of References begins at the top of the following page. ● Is your References page formatted according to the guidelines outlined above (e.g. is the title References centered)? Are lines following the first line in each entry, indented appropriately? Hint: the way to ensure proper indentation is by setting/changing the hanging indent within your document, rather than by using space or tab key. Remember to Check Your Paper for Possible Plagiarism: (Komm, 2012) 34 APA and the Internet Terms to Know: If you are unfamiliar with these terms please review them in the Glossary. database online library search engine credible sources paper mill message boards In many of your classes at Grantham, you will be expected to use the EBSCO library database for your research paper and any other formal papers. Many students will often say, “I prefer to use Google for my research.” While Google is a fantastic Internet search engine, it is not a library database. Google will lead you to everything that is out there on the web and while some of the search results are credible, many are not. Google Books and Google Scholar can be more useful to academic researchers, but they do not provide academic research with as many full-text resources as does the University’s official free library research databsase, EBSCO, which is a collection of scholarly journals, newspapers, and documents that a person might find in an onground university library. With that being said, indiscussions and in your journal, you might find that you want to use a source from the Internet. Perhaps you want to share an idea you found at a particular website or you want to talk about a YouTube Video. This chapter will help you decide which sources to use and which sources to avoid. Characteristics of a Credible Website Identifiable: the site and its content can be positively attributed to a recognizable publication (e.g. scholarly journal, research database, major newspaper) or institution (e.g. local, county, state, or federal government agencies); can be attributed to an author or group of authors (preferable but not essential). Impartial: while complete impartiality is, perhaps, unattainable, it is important that those sites you reference in support of your arguments demonstrate as little bias as possible relative to the question(s) at issue you address in your argument(s). Substantiated: include primary source data and/or appropriately formatted citations of relevant primary source material verifiable citations 35 Credible Sites Online Libraries: EBSCO, Internet Public Library .edu: Grantham University, Purdue Owl, Harvard University, etc. Newsources & Newspapers: CNN, NPR, New York Times, Chicago Tribune, etc. .gov: Department of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms; United States Department of Agriculture; Federal Student Aid Information Center, etc. Use with Extreme Caution online periodicals: New Yorker, Time, U.S. News, etc. Professional blogs: Even the most credible of these should never be used as a primary source. Even as a secondary source, it is important to vet the authors of such blogs for their credibility concerning the topic in question. .orgs - avoid political, controversial, or overtly biased organizations. Wikipedia: this very popular, collaborative, online encyclopedia is a great tool for acquainting oneself with a wide variety of topics, but, like other encyclopedias, (e.g. Encyclopedia Britainica) it is a reference work offering cursory information that is not peer-reviewed. Wikipedia cannot be considered a repository of scholarly work and should therefore never be used as a source in academic writing. About.com: similar to Wikipedia in that it is not vetted. Articles are written by paid contributors. Reliability is questionable. Avoid YouTube: as with Wikipedia, YouTube is not a vetted academic source of information. In a rare video or two, there may be scholars discussing scholarly things, but unless you vet the author and the venue, it’s best to avoid this as a source. Papermills: consultation of such sites likely constitutes plagiarism. Tutoring sites: you run the risk of committing an act of academic dishonesty (e.g. plagiarism) by consulting such sites. Personal blogs and websites: bloggers and cyber-authors who lack certifiable credibility on specific topics lack the ability to substantiate your arguments and, thus, should be avoided. Q&A sites (e.g. Ask.com, Yahoo Answers): these are watered-down versions of About.com at best and should, thus, be avoided as they do your arguments no credit whatsoever. Online Chatroom/Discussion Board messages: chatrooms and discussion forums are useful ways to communicate with others interested/invested in particular topics (e.g. your classmates within the Cybercafe and the other course-based Discussion Forums). But, messages posted online are not sources of research on which you can rely in substantiating your arguments. Freelance article sites (e.g. Helium, Associated Content): these lack sufficient credibility to support your own arguments. 36 References Komm, A. (2012). Avoiding plagiarism flow chart. Grantham University, Kansas City, MO. © Grantham University 2012 Basic Outline Format I. Topic / Title II. Introduction of Essay A. Write a few sentences that lead into the main point of your essay B. End the paragraph with your thesis statement (3 main points you are going to support) 1. First point in thesis 2. Second point in thesis 3. Third point in thesis III. Body of Essay A. Topic One - First Point in Thesis 1. Support your point with either quotations or solid evidence 2. Have at least five sentences B. Topic Two - Second Point in Thesis 1. Support your point with either quotations or solid evidence 2. Have at least five sentences C. Topic Three - Third Point in Thesis 1. Support your point with either quotations or solid evidence 2. Have at least five sentence IV. Conclusion A. Write a few sentences summarizing your essay B. Restate your thesis and how you proved your point Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Communication Q. How can I get in touch with my instructor? A. Check for contact information in the course policies folder under the Resources tab. Q. Can I ask the instructor questions in the essay drop box? A. No, your instructor will not see your comments until he or she opens up the lesson for grading. By that time it may be too late. If you have an important question to ask you will only receive a timely answer if you submit your question via the instructors preferred contact methods as outlined in his or her course policies. The comment box attached to the lesson dropbox is for comments and not questions. You may also use the Ask the Professor forum to ask more general questions, but remember that the Ask the Professor forum is viewable to all students enrolled in the class. Q. Can I use my personal email to contact my instructor? A. Yes, but it is best to contact your instructors via your Grantham Gmail Account since personal accounts at times are marked as spam and quarantined. If you do not receive a reply back from your instructor after emailing from your personal account, make sure you follow up using your Grantham email. Q. Can I use my nickname or my military rank in my signature for classes. A. It is best not to use rank or nicknames because you can confuse peers by using anything other than your registered name. Also, it is important to know that, regardless of the job you do outside of school, all students in a class hold the same academic rank. Please use your first and last name as it appears in the class list, especially if there are other students in the class with the same first name. You can add a nickname if you wish like this: Joe (nickname) Smith. Getting Help Q. I struggle with writing. Can I go to an online tutoring site and post course questions or purchase tutorials? A. This class is all about working on your writing skills, so it is important that you do not simply take the easy way out. Online tutoring sites tend to offer free essays to students for a fee, however, using these essays, in whole or in part, is plagiarism and could cause you to fail the course. In addition, posting university material or peer work is a violation of copyright law, and posting anything that was not written by you anywhere on the web could cause you serious legal trouble. Q. Where do I go to get help with my writing skills? A. Your instructor is here to help you through your writing struggles. Still, if you find you need additional help, Grantham University offers a free Writing Center which includes webinars, live chat sessions and personal tutoring through the Teaching and Learning Center (TLC). You can get more information about the services available by emailing TLC at learningcenter@grantham.edu. Grades Q. I received a 65% on an assignment; can I resubmit it for a better grade? A. In most cases, grades are final, so you will want to start your assignments early enough to do your best work. Still, you should refer to your individual instructor’s course policies in the Class Resources folder to determine if he or she accepts resubmissions. Q. How do I view my current grades or see feedback on assignments? A. You can find your grades in three different ways: • Using the “Grades: nugget on the student course page in ANGEL. Note: You will need to refresh the data periodically to get updated grades. • Once an assignment is graded, you can return to where you submitted it in order to see the feedback and the grade. • You can also pull up a Report via the Report tab. Please be sure to always read the instructor comments and look at any attached files. Late Policies & Deadlines Q. When will my instructor reply to my e-mail? A. Within 48 hours. Q. When will my instructor grade my work? A. Between Wednesday and Friday of the week due. Q. What if I turn my work in late? A. See your instructor’s late policy in the Course Policies Folder under the Resources tab. Q. I live on the Pacific coast, when is work due? A. Work is due on Tuesday by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, regardless of where you live. Please plan accordingly. Q. My computer crashed/ I have an emergency and my work is due what do I do? A. Check your instructor’s course policies regarding emergencies. It might also be a good idea to contact your Student Advisor. Q. I am deployed in a war zone, I am going TDY with limited or no Internet access, or I am preparing to deploy. Any tips? A. Let your instructor know about your situation as soon as you know what is happening. If you start class while deployed you should e-mail your instructor right away. If you receive orders or need to go on TDY you will need to e-mail your instructor with your exact dates of deployment (do not send orders or confidential information). If you will be deployed without Internet access for more than half of the class you will want to discuss your options with your SA as it may be difficult for you to complete the course. Q. I need an Incomplete due to military orders or an emergency. What do I do? A. If a student does not complete a course within the eight-week (56-day) term due to extenuating circumstances, he/she may request an incomplete from the instructor. In order to be eligible for an Incomplete, a student must have completed at least 50% of the required work for the course. Incompletes must be requested by the student in an email to his/her instructor and must be made 48 hours prior to the course end date. Incompletes may only be awarded for extenuating circumstances which prevent a student from completing a course. If the instructor grants the request for an (I), a student will then have an additional fourteen (14) days from the course end date to complete the course and earn a grade. A grade of (I) will be assigned and will remain in the student academic records until the final grade posts or until the end of the fourteen (14) day incomplete period. At the end of the additional fourteen (14) days, any remaining (I) incomplete course requirements will be awarded a grade of zero and averaged into the final grade. No additional time can be granted. The final grade will remain on the transcript. Q. I missed a discussion; can I just post my response now even though it was due four days ago? A. Not unless you have requested an extension from your instructor and received permission on or before the lesson due date. In most cases, once a forum deadline has passed, you can consider it closed for grading. 1 Glossary of Writing Terms A Abstract In APA, abstracts are found directly following the title page and are typically a 150-200 word summary of the following article or paper. Academic paper Academic papers are, for the most part, designed with two distinct purposes in mind: to analyze, interpret, explain, or argue about a topic; and to demonstrate an intellectual understanding of the course or field for which it is being written. Active sentence Active sentences are sentences in which the subject performs the action. Active voice Active voice entails the use of a subject-verb construction (active sentences) throughout the majority of a piece of writing. Adjective Adjectives provide information about, clarify, or describe nouns, pronouns, or other adjectives. Adverb Adverbs do very much the same thing as adjectives except they clarify and describe verbs. Agenda The underlying motivation for the creation of a text. Agreement Consistency in time, point of view, plurality or not, and so on within a text. Analysis The process of looking closely and critically at a text to determine what it means, how it presents its ideas, its effectiveness, and so on. Anecdote Brief stories or slices-of-life that help to make a point Annotate To underline or highlight important passages in a text and to make notes in the margins. APA style The official writing and documentation style of the American Psychological Association (APA), which is Grantham University’s official style of documentation and citation for all courses. Appeal An appeal is an argument that connects to the readers’ needs, such as achievement, belonging, or survival. Appendix The Appendix at the end of a text, report, or dissertation, contains appendices that provided additional information pertaining to the text. Application paper An application paper focuses on experiences and qualities that suit the writer for a specific position or program. 2 Argument Argument involves a course in logical thinking intended to convince the reader to accept an idea or to take action. Argumentative paper An argumentative paper presents an argument about a timely, debatable topic. Artifact An artifact is an object made or modified by a human culture. Attributive phrase A group of words that indicates the source of an idea or quotation. Attributive tag See attributive phrase. Audience This term literally refers to the listeners or hearers of a speech, including the intended listeners/hearers, but is commonly used to refer to the intended reader or readers for a piece of writing. Basic listing A brief, somewhat informal itemizing of main points. Biased words Words that unfairly or disrespectfully depict individuals of groups. Bibliography Lists of works that cover a particular subject. Block quotation A long quotation of 40 words or more. Block quotations are formatted in a way that sets them apart from the rest of the text by tabbing- in each line, omitting the quotation marks, and leaving the citation outside of the end punctuation. Blogs Online journals (shorthand for “Web log”). Body language Body language is a communication style that involves the use of physical cues to indicate a person’s level of comfort, interest, engagement, etc. Body paragraph A paragraph comprising, in part, the central portion or body of a paper or other, similarly structured, document, which is focused on articulating, developing, and supporting a single point of the larger argument presented by the author with his/her thesis statement in the introductory paragraph(s). Boolean operators Words or symbols used when searching research databases that describe the relationship between various words or phrases in a search. B 3 C Call numbers A set of numbers used by the Library of Congress that specify the subject area, topic, and authorship or title of a book, magazine, or other text. Camera-eye An approach to writing that involves sharing details as though a camera lens moving across a subject. Cause-effect paper A paper that examines the conditions or actions that lead to a specific outcome. Chronology Order of events as they have occurred in time. We often refer to descriptions of events in chronological order. Citation An agreed-upon notation that gives credit to those who informed the ideas within a text that did not originate with the text’s author. Classical argument Until recently, the most popular of argumentative styles. This style, invented in ancient Greece, involves two individuals arguing opposite sides of an argument in order to convince an unbiased third person. Clichés Overused words or phrases that, through time, have lost their meaning. For example, “It’s raining cats and dogs!” or, “It wasn’t just easy; it was a piece of cake!” Climax The most exciting moment in a narrative; the moment at which the person succeeds, fails, or learns something. Closed question Questions that can be answered by a simple “yes” or “no”. Clustering A form of brainstorming by freely recording words and phrases around a nucleus word. Coherence Strong connection between sentences in a paragraph; achieved through transition and repetition. Collections The materials housed within a library. Colloquialism Colloquialisms are common words which work well in common conversation, but are not suitable for academic writing. Words like, “cool,” “sweet,” “y’all,” and “gonna” are colloquialisms. Often, these can also be whole phrases like, “I was as nervous as a long-tailed cat in a room full of rocking chairs.” Comma splice A common error in writing made when the writer combines two independent clauses together with a comma (and nothing else). (i.e. “There was no way I was going alone, she said she wouldn’t dream of letting me out of her sight.”). Concessions Openly recognizing the validity of opposing viewpoints. 4 Conflict The obstacles or adversaries confronted by people in narratives; person vs. person, person vs. society, person vs. self, person vs. technology, person vs. nature, etc. Conjunction A word that joins two ideas within a sentence. For example: “I love pizza, and I love tacos.” The conjunction is “and.” Another example would be: “I would love some pizza, but it gives me heartburn. Connotation The suggestion made by a word or group of words—the implied meaning. Context The set of circumstances in which a statement is made; the text and other factors that surround a specific statement and are crucial to understanding it. Contraction The shortening or abbreviation of a phrase of two or more words into a single word for the sake of efficiency and/or for use within informal writing or speech (e.g. do not may be contracted as don’t). While contractions are often found in informal modes of writing and speech, they are not appropriate in academic writing. Controversies Issues about which there are two or more strongly opposing views or highly debatable issues. Conventions The standard rules for spelling, punctuation, mechanics, usage, grammar, and formatting. Copyright Legal ownership of the text of a document, entitling the owner of the copyright to determine if/when/how that text may be reproduced. Database An electronic repository of information organized by subject and/or academic or professional discipline (e.g. scholarly articles). Debatable topic A topic that is not mere fact, but can be argued from at least two different angles. Deductive reasoning Reasoning that works from general principles or ideas; through specific applications, support, and/or examples; to a conclusion. Defensible position A claim that is debatable, but can be strongly supported by evidence; a claim that is neither fact nor an unsupportable opinion. Denotation A word’s literal meaning. Dialogue The words spoken by people. In writing, dialogue is set apart by quotation marks. Directed writing An exploration tactic using one of a set of thinking moves: describe, compare, associate, analyze, argue, or apply. D 5 Direct quotation A word-for-word statement or passage from an original source. In writing, quotations are typically set apart by quotation marks and always cited. See also block quotation) Documentation Crediting sources of information, through in-text citations or references and a list of works cited or references, generally on a page or pages located at the end of a paper. DOI A Digital Object Identifier is an alphanumeric code that online content providers (e.g. databases, scholarly journals) provide as an alternative to the actual URL of a document so that researchers may cite those online documents using a static identifier within their bibliographic citations. Drafting Writing sentences and paragraphs to create an initial draft of a paper— should contain a beginning, a middle, and an end. EBSCO The online research database provided to students and faculty by Grantham University for the purposes of conducting academic research necessary for courses of study offered by the University. This database provides bibliographic citations and, in many cases, full texts of articles originally published in peer-reviewed, scholarly journals. Editing Refining a draft in terms of word choice and sentence style and checking it for conventions. Ellipsis A set of three periods with one space preceding and following each period; a punctuation mark that indicates a deletion of material. Paper The process of trying or testing (from the French verb, paperer, translated as to try); a written document that explores a particular question or issue, typically offering a thesis and supporting argument in response. Ethos An argumentative strategy designed to build, and then use the audience’s sense of trust and respect for the arguer to promote an idea. Etymology The origin of a word. Extended definition A type of analytical writing that explores the meaning of a specific term, providing denotation, connotation, and a variety of perspectives on the term. Extreme claims Claims that include words (all, best, never, worst) that are overly positive or negative. E 6 F Facts Statements that can be checked for accuracy through empirical evidence. Fair use Rules governing the use of small (not large) portions of a text for noncommercial purposes. Fake writing voice A writing voice that sounds overly academic, bland, or unnatural. Feasible Do-able; reasonable—given time, budgets, resources, and consequences. Field research An on-site scientific study conducted for the purpose of gathering raw data. First draft The initial writing in which the writing connects facts and details about the topic. First person A confessional or conversational style of writing that connects the thoughts of the writer directly to the reader through the use of the pronouns: I, me, we, us and so on. Good for some papers, but in general, is not considered appropriate for academic writing. First person is frowned upon when writing APA Style research papers. Flush The justification of the text in a paper (meaning to which margin of the page the text lines up). In APA, with the exception of page numbers, the title of the paper, the title-block, certain level titles, block quotations, the abstract title, and the References page title-- all text should be justified flush left. Page numbers are placed flush right, and all of the other exceptions are center justified. Focus The specific part of the subject to be covered in a piece of writing. Focused free-writing A form of free writing that is approached from a specific angle or as a quick draft of a paper. Forecasting Also known as foreshadowing, this is a writing technique that shows a preview of what the reader can expect throughout the rest of a document. In academic writing, forecasting usually happens within the thesis statement or within the transitions between paragraphs or sections. Foreshadowing (see forecasting) Form The type of writing; for example, report, letter, proposal, editorial, paper, story, or poem. Formal English Carefully worded language suitable for most academic writing. Formatting The visual organization of a document, including, but not limited to, margins, font, font size, font color, textual justification, line spacing, etc. 7 Formulaic writing Writing that stiffly adheres to a prescribed format and, because of that, fails to make an impact. Forwarding The process of interacting with an idea through writing. When we are forwarding, we are changing the idea, extending it, reshaping it, and filtering it through our consciousness in order to send the new, altered version out into the world. Fragment An incomplete sentence (missing a verb or a subject). Free-writing A form of non-stop writing used during the early stages of the writing process to collect thoughts and ideas. Glossary A list of important words and terms. Graphic organizer A chart or diagram used to arrange the main points and essential details of a paper. Hanging indent A hanging indent is the indention of the first line of a paragraph . Using the tab-key is generally the easiest way to create a hanging indent, but one can always use 12 spaces on the space bar. Hyperlinks Specially formatted text that enables readers to click to another spot on the Internet. Implications Natural results, direct and indirect, whether good or bad. Inductive reasoning Reasoning that works from particular details toward general conclusions. In-text citation Like citation, an in-text citation is an agreed-upon notation that gives credit to those who informed the ideas within a text that did not originate with the text’s author. In APA in-text citations are required in G H I 8 brief form within the body of the text, and are fully-cited on the References page(s). Informal English Language characterized by a more relaxed, personal tone suitable for personal writing. Intensity A writer’s level of concern for the topic as indicated by the writing voice. Jargon Technical terms not familiar to the general reader. Journal A notebook used regularly for personal writing. Journals Publications providing specialized scholarly information for a narrowly focused audient. Journals may be published monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, etc. Most journals are now also digitized. Many can be found in Grantham library’s free database. Some online journals require a subscription fee to access. Level of language The level of language a writer uses—informal, semi-formal, or formal. Line diagram A graphic organizer used to arrange ideas for expository writing. Logical fallacies Logical fallacies are false arguments based on fuzzy, dishonest, or incomplete thinking. Logos An argumentative strategy designed to appeal to an audience’s logic. Loose sentence A sentence that provides a base clause near the beginning, followed by explanatory phrases and clauses. Main claim A debatable statement, the thesis or key point in an argument. Medium The way that writing is delivered; for example, in a printed publication or online. Metaphor A comparison that equates two dissimilar things without using like or as; saying that one thing is another. J L M 9 Mnemonics Memory techniques in which new ideas are associated with more recognizable or memorable words, images, or ideas. Modifiers Words that limit or describe other words or groups of words; adjectives or adverbs. Nominal A noun form of a verb such as description, instructions, confirmation. Noun A part of speech that stands for a person, place, thing, or idea. Nucleus word The central theme in a cluster, connecting all other ideas. Observation Noting information received in person through the senses. Omit To leave out. Open-ended question A question that requires an elaborate answer. Opinions Personally held attitudes or beliefs. Options Choices provided with an assignment. Order of importance A pattern of organization often used in persuasive writing in which the writer begins or ends with the most convincing argument. Order of location Organizing details according to their position; progressing from near to far, inside to outside, and so on. Organizing pattern The way that details are arranged in writing; for example, chronological order or cause/effect order. Original document A record that relates directly to an event, issue, object, or a phenomenon. Orphan A single line of a new paragraph at the bottom of a page. Overall design The pattern the writing takes to move deas along—time order, compare-contrast, and so on. OWLs Online writing labs where individuals can get answers to their writing questions. N O 10 P Page design The elements (typography, spacing, graphics) that create the look of a paper; readability is the focus of design for academic writing. Paper mill A typically commercial organization, usually represented online through a web site, offering academic-style papers or papers, usually for a fee, to would-be plagiarizers. Parallelism Repeating phrases or sentence structures to show the relationship between ideas. Paraphrase To discuss an entire document in one’s own words. Passive sentence Sentences in which the subject is acted upon. Passive voice A subject-verb construction in which the subject is acted upon, not performing the action as it would be in the active voice. Pathos An argumentative strategy designed to appeal to an audience’s emotions. PDF Portable document file; a file form that preserves a document according to its exact appearance and is readable through Adobe software. Periodicals Publications (journals, magazines, newsletters) or broadcasts produced at regular intervals (daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly). Personal narrative Writing about a memorable experience; often includes personal reflection and thoughts. Pivotal points Moments in which a significant change occurs; literally a point in which a person changes direction. Plagiarism The act of presenting someone else’s work as one’s own, whether intentionally or unintentionally. Planning The thinking and organizing that go into establishing a direction and structure for writing. Platitudes Stale or unoriginal thoughts. Point of view The perspective from which the writer approaches the writing, including first-person, second-person, or third-person point of view. Portfolio A collection of selected work by a group or author. Preposition A word that shows a where/when relationship with the other words in the sentence or clause. Prepositions include words such as up, in, through, over, by, from, and so on. Primary sources Original sources that provide first-hand information about a subject. 11 Pronoun A word that replaces a noun in a sentence to help alleviate redundancy. Pronouns include words such as he, she, they, we, it, them, his, her, and so on. Proofread The act of checking a document for errors before submitting it. Public domain Materials provided by the government provided as a part of the “copy left” movement, or, generally speaking, documents over seventy-five years old. Publish The act of sharing a completed work with another. Purpose The goal of a piece of writing; for example, to inform, to convince, to analyze, to persuade. Qualifiers Words or phrases that limit or refine a claim, making it more reasonable. Quotation A word-for-word statement or passage from an original source. In writing, quotations are always set apart and cited. Rapport Personal connection, trust, and teamwork. Rebuttal A tactful argument aimed at weakening the opposing point of view. Redirect To restate the main claim or argument. Redundancy Words used together that mean nearly the same thing. Also, the repetitive use of a word or phrase when that word or phrase could be replaced with another. Redundancy Words used together that mean nearly the same thing. Also, the repetitive use of a word or phrase when that word or phrase could be replaced with another. References Also known as sources, references are made up of information that has been gathered from external works in order to provide evidence toward a claims or to draw associations between authors within a paper. References can be journal articles, books, information on websites, magazines, videos, interviews or other documents. Most college writing uses sources, but these references are generally limited to specific forms and types by the course and/or instructor. APA insists that references be scholarly in nature and generally asks that they be Q R 12 peer reviewed. References should always be cited both in the body of text and in the References page . Reference listing A citation of a document that has been quoted, paraphrased, or summarized within a paper and appears in the References page. References page In APA, the References page is the last page of a paper. This page includes an alphabetical listing of all the sources/references quoted, summarized, and/or paraphrased within the paper. Source/reference listings are expected to follow the APA citation style appropriate for the particular type of source they refer to. Each listing is treated as an individual, but reversed paragraph, with, the first line flush with the left margin of the paper, and with each additional line of the source/reference listing tabbed-in. Refute To prove an idea or argument false, illogical, or undesirable. Repetition Repeating words or synonyms where necessary to remind the reader of what has already been said. Research paper A fairly long paper, complete with a thesis statement, supporting evidence, integrated resources, and careful documentation. Restrictions Limitations of choice within an assignment. Résumé A brief document that outlines a person’s employment objectives and highlights the person’s job skills, experience, and education. Revising Improving and/or redirecting a draft through large-scale changes such as adding, deleting, rearranging, and reworking. Rhetoric The art of using language effectively. Running head Running heads (aka running titles) are brief versions of the title that appear in the top, left of each page, and are presented in all capital letters. Running heads should be no more than 50 characters in length, and no more than five words long. Due to their brevity, running heads are often abbreviated versions of the title of the paper. On the title page, the words Running head: precede the title (not in italics or in all capital letters). The remaining pages of the paper include only the abbreviated title without the additional wording. Search engine An online research tool (e.g. Google, Yahoo) through which researchers may search the internet for webpages, documents, etc. Secondary source Sources that are at least once removed from the original source; sources that provide second-hand information. Second person The perspective or voice of direct address, in which the author or speaker addresses the reader or hearer using a second-person pronoun S 13 (i.e. you), as if in conversation. Second person is useful when giving individual direction or in some technical writing. But, due to its casual, familiar, and often accusatory tone, it is highly discouraged in academic writing. Sensory details Sights, sounds, smells, tastes, textures, temperatures and other details connected to the five senses—showing rather than telling about the subject. Sentence combining The act of combining ideas in sentences to show relationships and to make connections. Sentence expanding The act of extending basic ideas with different types of phrases and clauses. Sentence outline A more formal method of arrangement in which a writer states each main point and essential detail as a complete sentence. Sentence variety The varying of beginnings, lengths, and types of sentences within a paper in order to make the writing interesting to the reader. Sexist language Language that, unintentionally or not, accounts for only one gender despite being directed toward a mixed audience. Showcase portfolio A collection of appropriate, finished pieces of writing. Slang Words considered to lie outside of the standard English language because they are faddish, familiar to a few people, and may be insulting. Slanted question Questions that presuppose a specific answer. Sources Also known as a references, sources are made up of information that has been consulted to provide evidence within a paper. Sources can be journal articles, books, information on websites, magazines, videos, interviews or other documents. Most college writing uses sources, but these sources are generally limited to specific forms and types by the course and/or instructor. APA insists that sources be scholarly in nature and generally asks that they be peer reviewed. Sources should always be cited both in the body of text and in the References page. Spatial organization A pattern of organization in which the writer logically orders descriptive details from far to near, left to right, top to bottom, and so on. Also see camera-eye. Style The variety, originality, and clarity of a piece of writing. Subject The general area covered by a piece of writing. Summary Condensed representation, in one’s own words rather than through quotation, of the main points of a passage. Summary is designed to extract the meaning of a piece of work in a form that essentializes the original author’s words. Surface change The edited (corrected) words, phrases, and sentences in a piece of writing. 14 Surface error A problem in word choice, grammar, mechanics, usage, etc. that do little to harm the transference of meaning, but appear untidy and unprofessional. Tab A series of 12 spaces placed at the beginning of a paragraph. Can more easily be accomplished by striking the “Tab” key. Tactful Being sensitive to the feelings of others; avoiding unnecessary offense. Taxonomy A system of classification of items—plants, animals, ideas, movements, etc. Tertiary source Sources that provide third-hand information, such as wikis; though these sources are a good place to begin to formulate ideas, using them as evidence to drive an academic paper is highly discouraged at the college-level. Thesis Statement A sentence or group of sentences that sum up the central idea of a piece of writing; thesis statements serve as a map to the body of a paper. Third person The perspective or voice of indirect observation, in which the author or speaker uses third person pronouns (e.g. he, she, they) to describe the actions and interactions of persons with things and in places at which the author or speaker is/was not present. In fiction, this is the voice of the semi-omniscient or omniscient narrator. Thought details Impressions, emotions, predictions, and reflections; details that reveal perceptions rather than sensations. Title page The page on which, in the APA style, the title of the paper, the name of the author(s), and the name of the organization are identified. Title pages are the first page of an APA style paper. Title block The identifying information found on the title page of an APA style paper. Title blocks are center-justified, and include, in descending order, the title of the paper, the name of its author, and the organization the paper is being written for (for papers written in college, this organization is almost always the name of the school). Tone The overall feeling or effect created by a writer’s thoughts and his or her choice of words. Topic outline A less formal method of arrangement in which the writer states each main point and essential detail as a word of a phrase. Transition Words or phrases that help tie ideas together. T 15 U Uninspiring draft A draft in which the writer fails to connect with his or her readers or makes a lasting impression. Unity Oneness achieved in a paragraph through a strong focus on a single, central idea. Verb An action word. Vivid verb Specific action verbs, such as lunge, trudge, etc. that help to create clear images. Voice The tone of the writing, often affected by the personality of the writer. Widow A single word of a short line carried over to the top of the next page. Working thesis A preliminary answer to a main research question; the focus of one’s research. Worn-out topic A paper that is dull or unoriginal because the topic has been overworked. Abortion, Legalizing Marijuana, Global Warming, and Lowering the Drinking Age are all examples of worn-out topics. Writing portfolio A selected group of writings by a single author. Writing process The steps that a writer follows to develop a thoughtful and thorough piece of writing. V W © Grantham University 2012
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This essay focuses on the ‘Power of Positive Thinking and Self Belief’ a topic whose
idea and the concept is generated from personal experiences at different stages of life from
childhood to a youthful age. It describes the attitude and personalities involved during the
various stages of life and the key turning points which led to change.
In reading about this topic, the reader would be interested in the character, attitude and
nature of the persona at the different stages in life. He or she would want to know the events
surrounding the persona which influenced character and attitude including the factors that
initiated change and their impact on the transformation.
This is a story about mentality and its influence on someone’s personality and success or
failure. In the end, the reader should be able to learn about how someone’s life can be
transformed based on how they perceive themselves and the power of understanding that
someone believes in you and being given a chance despite all odds. The reader should be able to
relate the concept of the story to their personal lives and possibly also gain a positive impact.
Personal experience stories, unlike scripted narratives always tend to be influenced by
different factors, there are some experiences whose clear motives and situational aspects cannot
be clearly defined and the existence of a gap due to lost memory. It is difficult to develop this
narrative because of the many factors that influenced the transformation of events from one stage
to another some of which cannot be clearly comprehended. What makes the story difficult to tell
is because at one point in time there are things that seemed to be clearly okay which letter looked
different and one cannot predict the outcome if maybe things had been done differently at that
particular time.

Part I
Writing is something I could do not for the sake of leisure or pleasure but because I had
to do it in order to communicate. The true definition of my attitude towards writing is that it is
something I had to do in order to cope with the situation around me. Despite the lack of passion
in writing, my teacher always congratulated me, telling me how good I can be in writing if I
focused on sharpening my skills and be a little bit more enthusiastic about it. It never made much
sense to me because it was never a big deal. Over time, my teacher would give me different
forms of writing and made me understand how my form of writing related to some of the
professional ones, it is through this continuous exposure, being motivated to perfect my skills
that I developed more interest. Today, I write for fun.
Part II
Writing entails different formats and understanding how the different formats are
structured helps to define a good writer. One of the common style, the APA as structured by the
American Psychological Association helps to define formatting, how sources are documented
and the way ideas should be organized. The flow of ideas has been distributed in three different
stages which include the introduction, body, and conclusion. The introductory part should give
an overview of what the body entails. The body is a details explanation of the concept
comprising of paragraphs with at least five sentences. The conclusion summarizes the whole
concept while giving an objective opinion. Having an understanding of these skills helps in
creating a comprehensive written article with a smooth flow of ideas.

Part I
While some people think writing is an art that is taught and learned, others think it is a
skill. There are those who write because to them it is a way of communication while there are
those who view writing as an aspect and a tool that can lead to transformative change depending
on how ideas have been expressed. Some can be described as good writers, does that mean there
are bad writers? What is the difference between a good writer and a bad one? What does it take
to be different or stand out when it comes to writing? All these questions linger in trying to
differentiate between good writers and bad writers. It is through understanding what each aspect
entails that it is possible to tell the difference and make a choice.
Part II
To begin with, it is important to describe the real nature of writing and whether it is an
art, a skill or a passion. Having a clear understanding of what writing entails helps to
conceptualize different attitudes and opinion about a good or bad writer. Secondly, evaluating
the distinct characteristics of a good writer and what is perceived to constitute a bad writer will
help in understanding the difference and provide guidance of what it entails to be either a good
or bad writer. Finally, relating the understanding of the concept, the differences entailed and
aspects that make one a good or bad writer will drive an objective overview and the way
forwards towards solving the challenges faced and providing answers to the questions raised.

I presume that we have all have gotten to a point in life where, the things that used to
drive us, those that we had passion towards, no longer make sense. It may not always entail the
aspect of ‘growing up’ sometimes it involves a change in attitude and perception towards things.
My predicament at this point in time involves my attitude towards reading and writing. Some
time back, I was a good reader, at least based on my understanding or what people said, I could
read anything and try to understand the concept or the attitude behind the writer’s opinion.
Concerning writing, I never liked to write, except when it was necessary and I had no option. A
lot has changed and I am not the same anymore.
While I can’t say it is due to growing up and that I am almost completing my studies, I no
longer have the same passion in reading. This has to some extent affected my studies and my
general interaction with other people’s written ideas. My choice to write was situational, many
times it was because I had been given an assignment on writing, the negative impact of this
attitude was that I went to the extent of skiving classes that involved too much writing and would
prefer to get an audio version of the lecture or just listen more and write less, some people
recommend this. Despite my attitude towards writing, the few articles and essays that I
documented received recognition from my teacher who said they stood out from the others and
that I had great potential. Such sentiments did not really make sense to me as I was not doing it
out of conviction but continuous compliments about my writing skills slowly started to change
my perception (Smith, 2013).

By constantly pressuring me to perfect my writing skills and referring to my articles of
top writers in order to better understand the concept, today, my attitude towards writing is very
different. I write for leisure and express my opinion and understanding of different aspects and
themes towards writing. It took my teacher’s opinion to change my attitude, recognize something
that I’m good at and embrace it. While I still don’t read much, I write often, not about what I
have read but regarding the things I observe and my general imagination about different
concepts. I think I will stick to this as some say, the best writers are the creative and imaginary
ones (Sperlinger, 2012).

Smith, R. (2013). Tell a Good Story Well: Writing Tips. New Directions For Teaching And
Learning, 2013(136), 73-83. doi: 10.1002/tl.20077

Sperlinger, T. (2012). A Writer without Qualities: Recent Work on Doris Lessing. Contemporary
Women's Writing, 6(2), 177-184. doi: 10.1093/cww/vps003

While many perceive writing in its basic nature, being a good writer entails more than
just scribbling down a concept. This informative essay focuses on being a good writer.

The audience of my paper are scholars who are passionate about writing

What I want them to do is serve a different perspective about writing and improve
on their concept.

I will be focusing on a descriptive essay prompt

My topic is about being a good writer

The goal of this essay is sharpening the audience’ writing skills and abilities

To accomplish this goal, I need a detailed differentiation between a good and bad
writer and things that set them apart

The issues I am likely to encounter include different perspectives and opinion
about writing and conflicting ideologies

My working title is ‘How to be a good Writer’

How to be a good Writer
Being a good writer is not much about skills but has got a lot do with desire and
perseverance. Good and bad writers are differentiated by consistency and attitude (Hodes, 2010).
In order to conceptualize what being a good writer entails, it is important to understand the
attributes of a good writer and what defines a ba...

Awesome! Perfect study aid.


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