Genetic lab report

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Question description

Part 1:

For the DNA sequencing, the autoradiograph, write a full lab report. In the result section, show the sequences you obtained in class along with the mutations. In the discussion, identify the mutations and the possible consequences of these mutations in translation. Don’t forget a cover page!

Part 2, Copy and paste the table above into another Word file and then type your answers in each trait expanding the space to fit each answer. Print it off and hand it in for this part of the lab exercise. Attach this to your lab report. Remember you cannot just copy and paste from OMIM, you must put it in your own words!

I will provide my partner's lab report for you.

Please do not copy his word, use your own word.

Lab 7. DNA Sequencing and Genetic Traits Part 1. Principles of DNA sequencing The purpose of this exercise is to provide detailed instruction on the practice of DNA sequencing. To understand DNA sequencing we will complete a virtual lab individually and then proceed in doing the group work of sequencing DNA strands. This virtual lab is to help you understand the process behind creating the DNA sequences that we are working with today. You will be provided an actual autoradiograph (an exposed sheet of x-ray film) of a DNA sequencing gel for analysis. The sequence deduced from the autoradiograph will differ from a wild type sequence. This difference represents an actual mutation in the DNA model. You are expected to identify the location(s) of the mutated nucleotide(s). You may work in groups to complete this activity. Before reading the sequences, the virtual lab to Sanger’s sequencing should be completed individually. Everyone is required to follow the link and complete this lab and answer questions on the worksheet at the end of this manual. The link to the virtual lab is http://www.bch.cuhk.edu.hk/vlab2/animation/dna/ Upon, completing the virtual lab, read the case study and complete the worksheet. The worksheet is attached at the end of this manual. Part 2. Genetics of readily detected human traits We have already mentioned human genetic disorders and traits in lecture (Chapter 4). The classical study of single gene effects was by conventional pedigree analysis, which we will cover in later in lecture (Chapter 11 in Russell). It is still a very valuable and useful method for studying many traits in humans. McKusick (OMIM online version, see URL below) has listed over 8000 established human gene loci, many of which were determined by conventional methods. Refer to this and look up the features of the human genetic disorders and traits and fill out information on the mode of inheritance for the conditions listed in Table 1 below. The online version Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man is available at the URL below. OMIM URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=omim&TabCmd=Limits Table 1. Some readily detected human genetic traits Trait (OMIM number) Inheritance mechanism with complications and complexities Achondroplasia (100800) Colorblindness (303800 and 303900) Cystic fibrosis (219700) Ear lobes (128900) Tay-Sachs (272800) Refer to the lab report section on how to complete the write up for this section. Lab Exercise: Individually, go through the virtual lab link and after you finish that fill in the worksheet at the end of this manual individually. When you are sure of how the dideoxy sequencing works, you need to get the autoradiographs for today’s group work. Each group must get the control strand1. This is the standard sequence of DNA after recording the standard, pick out any other available strands from the instructor’s desk and sequence this strand. Tally the second strand to the standard to observe mutations. Note down the mutations you see and the type of mutation it is. Complete part 2 of today’s lab individually at home, by following the link and completing the table on the end of this manual. Lab Report: Fill out the Worksheet and attach it to your lab report. For the DNA sequencing, the autoradiograph, write a full lab report. In the result section, show the sequences you obtained in class along with the mutations. In the discussion, identify the mutations and the possible consequences of these mutations in translation. Don’t forget a cover page! For part 2 of this lab, Copy and paste the table above into another Word file and then type your answers in each trait expanding the space to fit each answer. Print it off and hand it in for this part of the lab exercise. Attach this to your lab report. Remember you cannot just copy and paste from OMIM, you must put it in your own words!
DNA Sequencing and Genetics Traits LAB 7 Yaning Xi Dr. Jacqueline Jones/ Ms. Rashmee Silwal Genetics Lab Bio-L320-TOBA Sept 24, 2018 Introduction: DNA sequencing is the test to make an accurate result for the order of nucleotides. Because of the Human Genome Project has been finished in 2003, DNA sequencing has become more efficient and costed fewer. The new DNA sequencing provided a rich set of techniques and data for the study of genetic disease risk, treatment response, population diversity, and human evolution (NCBI, 2013). To use the results of DNA sequencing and compare with the normal type of DNA sequences, some mistakes could be found and get accurate disease report. One important stuff which is used in this technique is autoradiograph. Autoradiography (ARG) is a powerful, high resolution, quantitative molecular imaging technique used to study the tissue distribution of radiolabeled xenobiotics in biologic models (NCBI, 2007). ARG radiolabel the labeled DNA first, then uses the imaging technique to produce the final image. The final image could be visualized the differences between the normal DNA sequences and mutant one, it also could locate where the mutations are. In this experiment, the principle of DNA sequencing combines with autoradiography should be familiar with. The capability of differentiation between the normal image of autoradiography and the mutant one should be mastered. The information of normal human genetics disorders should be very familiar with. Materials and Methodology: There were five autoradiography in this lab. The number one was the control group, which meant this sequence is normal status. The number two to five were the experimental group, they need to be compare with the control group to find the differences. No.1 and No.2 were observed first, then they were put together until overlapped. Finally, the mutant fragments were found and mutant positions were marked and recorded. Then No.3 to No.5 were used to repeat the following steps and all mutant positions were recorded. Results: DNA sequence of No.1 (5’---3’): AGCTTGGCTGCAGGTCGTCGGATCCCCGGG--DNA sequence of No.2 (5’---3’): AGCTTGGCTGCAGGTCGAC--DNA sequence of No.3 (5’---3’): AGCTTGGCTGCAGGTCGGC--DNA sequence of No.4 (5’---3’): AGCTTGGCTGCAGGTCGACGGATCCCCA--DNA sequence of No.5 (5’---3’): AGCTTGGCTGCAGGTCGACGGATCCCCA--- Discussion: In the group two, the mutation is transversion. The possible consequences in translation: UCGAACCGACGUCCAGCTG---mRNA In the group three, the mutation is transition. The possible consequences in translation: UCGAACCGACGUCCAGCCG---mRNA In the group four, the mutation is transversion. The possible consequences in translation: UCGAACCGACGUCCAGCTGCCUAGGGGU---- mRNA In the group five, the mutation is transversion. The possible consequences in translation: UCGAACCGACGUCCAGCTGCCUAGGGGU---- mRNA References DNA sequencing: Clinical applications of new DNA sequencing technologies. (21, February). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364518/ EG, S. (n.d.). Autoradiography: high-resolution molecular imaging in pharmaceutical discovery and development. - PubMed - NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23484758
Disorder Achondroplasia Colorblindness Cystic fibrosis Ear lobes Tay-Sachs Inheritance mechanism Autosomal dominant X-lined Autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant(No lobes) or polygenic(normal) Autosomal recessive Answer: In Achondroplasia: Traits: short-limb and cause dwarfism, the form of face is abnormal, lumbar extends to outside. Complications: It is easy to cause the dehiscence of the jugular bulb, further cause unexplained hearing loss, easy to cause the heart disease. Complexities: Seven of eight cases are new mutations, high mutant rate, hard to trace the rule. In colorblindness: Traits: can only have two photoreceptors, normal disease is Red-Green Colorblindness, can't distinguish these two colors. Complications: Have higher risk to get eyes disorders like glaucoma. Complexities: Have genetics polymorphism which is in the genes which code for red and green pigment. In cystic fibrosis: Traits: pancreas function disorder, disruption of intestinal function, bronchopulmonary infection, high sweat electrolyte in hot environment Complications: 96 percent of patients have biliary tract obstruction, 3%-5% of patients have serve liver disease, chronic respiratory infection commonly. Complexities: CFTR is very important, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, mutation of CFTR, cause the dysregulation of fluid in organs In ear lobes, have no lobes on ears. If it is inherited, it has no complications. Complexity is polygenic inheritance. In Tay-Sachs, Infants are very sensitive to the sounds, developmental retardation with paralysis, dementia and blindness, death in age2 or 3, central of retina appears gray-white area. Infants usually die by lung infection in early age. Some rare patients don't appear the symptoms until teenager. Hex-A is the key point in this disease, patients always show the Hex-A deficiency.
BIO L320 Genetics Lab HOW TO WRITE A SCIENTIFIC LAB REPORT GENERAL IN APA FORMAT: Scientific lab reports or any other APA style paper written at a collegiate level have a standard format. The following are standard for APA papers: • 1inch margins on all sides • 12-point font and the font style should be either Arial, or Times Roman • Some type of Header (Running Head:) • Numbered pages except the Title Page • Paragraphs indented 1-tab space • DOUBLE-SPACED throughout the paper including Title Page and Reference Page. Scientific laboratory reports have a separate Title Page and a separate Reference page. These lab reports also have HEADINGS on each section of the report. These headings are: • Introduction • Materials & Methods • Results • Discussion • Acknowledgements TITLE: The first page of the lab report is the TITLE page. Do NOT number the Title page unless instructed to do so. The title of the lab report should NOT be too general but should reflect more specifically about the experiment. For example: “Fingerprinting” is too general for the title but instead, use something like: “Fingerprinting as an Effective Forensic Tool in Solving Murders.” The title should be informative; it should not be “cute.” A Running head is needed as a Header on all pages including the title page. The Running Head should appear as “Running Head: SHORT TITLE OF PAPER IN ALL CAPS” (but not in bold); so, for example: “Running Head: FINGERPRINTING AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL.” Troy University NOTE: The title is in Title case (first letter of each word is capitalized except nonessential words.)! The Title page information should be absolute centered on the page. The Title page should NOT be numbered! (unless instructed). The Title page must be doubled-spaced, have a center indentation and include the following information: Title Lab Number Your Name (author) Names of those in the experimental group (do not put “Group Members” next to names) Instructor Class name Name of Institution Date of submission Example: Mendelian Genetics – Genetic basis of the Principle of Segregation in F2 progeny of a monohybrid cross LAB 9 Jane College, Harry Potter, Norman Rockwell and Barry Allen Dr. Jacqueline Jones/ Ms. Rashmee Silwal Genetics Lab Biol320 (A/B) August 15, 2017 Troy University Introduction The paper must be written in THIRD person. Do NOT use I, me, we, them, they, he, she or us. The Introduction does just that: INTRODUCES the topic or concept on which an experiment was Performed. It is in the Introduction where you explain the ideas or concepts and NOT the experiment. Explain why the topic is important and if needed, a short background. How does the topic relate to your experiment? You don’t have to make it too wordy if you can introduce your topic correctly. You will need to cite at least two references in your Introduction section. ALL resources (references) MUST be properly CITED in the Introduction. Correct in text citations for the APA format must be present. Helpful links are posted on your course syllabus in Required Textbooks and Supplementary Materials. It is considered PLAGIARISM if credit is not given. Always Paraphrase! Avoid using direct quotes. In the Introduction, NEVER: • Discuss results • Written in first person • Includes information just to fill in space. • State how data were collected (data are plural!) • Use numerous quotes instead of paraphrasing. But, avoid paraphrasing that isn’t written in your own words! • Plagiarize literature reviews or anything else in the paper (use quotations if directly quoting otherwise paraphrase or use your own words) • Start the Introduction with “In this experiment…” or “We experimented on….” • Include unnecessary information. “A Sharpie was used…” • Be wordy! • Triple space between paragraphs or next Heading • Start the Hypothesis with “I hypothesize… or “My group hypothesizes…” or anything else that is first person.” Troy University The last paragraph in the Introduction is for stating the Purpose and Hypothesis. As it is a part of introduction, you don’t need a title for this. It’s just the end sentence or section on Introduction. The Purpose is stating why the experiment was performed. Do NOT make statements such as: “The purpose of this experiment is to learn more about solutions.” Or, “The experiment will help me learn more about fingerprinting.” Or better yet, “It’s part of my grade.” The purpose should be logical and scientific. Basically, what was the lesson learned? Materials and Methodology This section is used to describe HOW the experiment was performed. There should be enough information so that another researcher or layperson can repeat the experiment and get the same or similar results. This section is written in sentence (narrative) format DESCRIBING the materials and/or equipment used, and EXPLAINING the steps taken to collect data. You should NEVER just LIST materials used and steps taken. These should always be explained in a narrative, sentence format. DO NOT LIST!!! Do not plagiarize information from the lab manual or experiment handout! This section should always be written in PAST TENSE since you have already completed the experiment. Remember that you are describing what you did or how you set up the equipment so that data was collected and what materials were used. However, you must include enough detail that another person could set up the experiment the same way you did! Do NOT make any statements about the data collected. This will be in the Results section. Do not include unnecessary information such as: “A blue sharpie pen was used to label….” Or “Three marks were made on test tube #1…” Use statements such as: “Three mLs of water and 3mLs of methylene blue were added to each of three test tubes marked 1-3.” Results This section is for PRESENTING the data that were collected in the experiment. Your presentation of the data should allow readers to draw some type of conclusion about your experiment. You MUST include Tables and Figures (graphs) in this section about the data you collected. All tables and figures should be described in NARRATIVE format. You MUST describe the data in a narrative form and not just insert a table or graph or some type of listing. Points will be removed if there is not a narrative description of the data. Follow the sentence descriptive form as with any section of the lab report except you will also insert a table(s) and Troy University figure(s) displaying the mathematical data. You should NEVER DISCUSS what the data MEAN in this section. Other readers should be able to easily read and understand what was measured from the table and figure. TABLES AND FIGURES MUST BE NUMBERED and have an informative title. The number and title are placed ABOVE the Table or Figure and double-spaced. The information inside the table is not double-spaced. Figures are also numbered and can include Graphs, Charts and Illustrations Figures (Graphs, Charts and Illustrations) must have Legends, Specific Titles, X & Y axes named, numbered and a short explanation of the figure. Discussion In this section, you will EXPLAIN or analyze the results. The hypothesis(es) should be restated. Your conclusions should be well organized and thoughts not scattered about in different paragraphs. You can also in-text cite references again in the discussion to support your thoughts. In this section, your results are INTERPRETED! Why are the results the way they are? Are the data similar to previous experiments? THINK ABOUT HOW THESE RESULTS RELATE AND WHAT THEY MEAN! Were your group results similar to other groups? Why or why not? Include a short discussion as to whether the data SUPPORTED or did NOT SUPPORT your hypothesis. A hypothesis cannot be Right or Wrong! It cannot be correct or not correct or good or bad. A hypothesis can ONLY be supported or not supported by the data collected. Do not make statements in your discussion such as “The results showed that my hypothesis was right (or wrong).” There is no right or wrong! If your hypothesis is not supported by the data, it does not necessarily mean that you did something wrong. You may have not done the experiment correctly but more than likely, there were other factors that may have altered the outcome. Discuss whatever you may think was a factor and it went wrong. Assumptions about any possible ERRORS while collecting data should be discussed. Refer to the data to support your speculations about the experiment. Do not state that “something went wrong” or “I was not clear about the instructions.” Compare your group data to those of other groups to see if your data are similar to the other groups. Troy University The last paragraph should state the major findings of the experiment/study. References References are the scientific/scholarly articles from VALID and RELIABLE sources about similar studies. NEVER use WIKIPEDIA as a reference. It is NOT valid or reliable!! References for Scientific papers should be listed in APA (American Psychological Association Writing Journal) format. The best way to gather your references is to do a database search in the Troy Library resources or Goggle Scholar first. A book is another great source that can be cited. Other reliable web sites include WebMD.com, CDC.gov, nih.gov, or nih.gov/PubMed. The Reference Heading should be centered at the top of the page. The heading should NOT be in bold, italicized or underlined. References are never bulleted or numbered. References should be listed on a separate page and in alphabetical order. Basic Format for List of references at the End of the Lab Report : APA style dictates that authors are listed last name first followed by first name initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical or journal title is italicized and in title case (first letter of each word is capitalized except non-essential words such as in, of, a, and, etc…), and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized. If there is an issue number, it is in parentheses next to the volume number and is not italicized. Page numbers are in the format xx-xxx. If the article was retrieved from the internet, include the URL. It should be written as Retrieved from then the web address. Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number not italicized), pages. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx.xxxx For more help, its best to refer the Supplementary Materials listed on the Course Syllabus.

Tutor Answer

dvsg
School: Duke University

Attached.

Running head: DNA SEQUENCING AND MUTATIONS

DNA sequencing and mutations
Student’s name:
Institution’s name:
Date:

1

DNA SEQUENCING AND MUTATIONS

2

DNA sequencing and mutations
Introduction
DNA sequencing refers to the scientific projections and determination of the arrangement of the
nucleotides (As, Ts, Cs, and Gs) within the DNA strands. Today, there is adequate information
about human DNA all due to the extensive researches that have been conducted (DNA sequencing,
2018). The DNA pool of knowledge has made it easy for people to determine genetically related
diseases. Doctors can now be able to decide on location in the DNA where there is a disorder and
give proper treatment. Comparison of a standard sequence and a defect...

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Wow this is really good.... didn't expect it. Sweet!!!!

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