Africans & the Challenges Faced after the Abolition of Slavery & The Atlantic Slave Trade
An important area of research in the study of the African Diaspora is the period
immediately following the Abolition of the Slave Trade and the Abolition of Slavery!
Abolition freed tens of thousands of enslaved Africans in many slave-holding societies in
which the British, French, Dutch, Spanish and American slave holders had subjected
millions of African peoples to a life of slavery, dehumanization and marginalization – a
majority working against their will and having little to look forward to in an uncertain
and uncomfortable future. Despite varying attempts to free themselves, enslaved Africans
almost always failed to fully achieve this goal, leaving them frustrated and brutalized.
The one exception of a successful rebellion occurred in early 19th century in San
After over three hundred years of enslavement and routine inhumane treatment,
enslaved Africans, began experiencing true emancipation in the 19th century; they were
finally freed from bondage! What were the possibilities that lay ahead for these newly
freed men, women and families? What were some of the obstacles and hindrances they
encountered? What were the results? How were they able to overcome their problems?
This semester’s research assignment focuses on the aftermath of the Abolition of
Slavery and the Slave Trade in any of the New World areas and societies! Students are
expected to write an essay of, at least, five full pages in length, relating to the aftermath
of the abolition of the slave system. Students can focus their research on how and why
abolition came about and the effects and reaction and/or impact on the lives of freed
individuals and/or their families. Students can also focus their efforts/attention on how
some African peoples and their communities have fared following abolition. Students can
discuss the motivations/factors that led to abolition and whether abolition was truly
devised to protect the former slave holders as opposed to the former enslaved workers.
NOTE: The following terms - Diaspora, Abolition, Emancipation and Resilience must be defined, included or incorporated within the text of the essay, preferably in the
Final submissions must be presented in a folder and must include all notes / rough drafts,
etc. taken and made during the writing of the assignment. Failure to submit the research
essay assignment on time and without the accompanying notes can, and will,
substantially reduce your total points and will hurt your chances of successfully
completing the course.
Some Pointers/Reminders for the Term Paper:
Points will be awarded for:
• Originality and coherent expression of thought, ideas and arguments.
• Organization and expression.
• Adherence to the research methods adhered to by historians. (Use of footnotes
and a Bibliographical listing of Sources)
Adherence to the stated guidelines for this essay presentation.
The text of the essay must be, in double-spacing format, at least, 5 (five) full
pages in length. The text of the essay cannot exceed 7 (seven) pages.
• The Essay must contain Footnotes or Endnotes and a BIBLIOGRAPHICAL
listing of articles and books used in the compilation of the essay. At least 5 (five)
Bibliographical sources must be consulted and cited. Limit your use of Internet
and Encyclopedia sources. On-line Journal articles can be used in this research.
Students are encouraged to develop an outline of the essay and to consult with the
instructor to ensure that the research is on the right track. Your outline must
include potential topics of discussion within the essay, as well as sources to be
consulted in your research.
• The Essay must have 1. An introductory paragraph. 2. Additional paragraphs
comprising the body of the essay, and 3. A concluding paragraph/section
Once again, Students are encouraged to make an outline of their research essay
and, in a timely manner, present it to the instructor for critique and adjustments.
Students are also encouraged from time to time, during the research and writing
process, to consult with the Instructor. This will ensure that your research is
acceptable and is on the right track. Do remember, to include the outline in the
• Through the use of Footnotes or Endnotes, students must cite the source(s) of
information, including quotations, found in the text of the essay. Information to be
included in such citations are as follows:
1. The writer’s name.
2. The title of the work (Underlined or Italicized).
3. City of Publication.
5. Year of Publication
6. The page number (s) from where the information is gathered.
Example: John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African
Americans. Seventh Edition (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), 22-23.
Note: each individual Footnote or Endnote must have a individual and different number
and must be listed in numerical order of 1, 2, 3 etc. A corresponding number must be
listed in the text to indicate and correspond with the reference cited in the footnote or
Except for the first page, all pages of the text of the essay must be numbered.
Numbering begins on page 2, the second page of the text, and proceeds
THE GRADING RUBRIC
Historical Essay Grading Requirements & Guidelines
Understanding: General understanding/comprehension of the question - The
response must reflect a full and thorough understanding of the
Organization: Points will be awarded for paragraph organization. Each
Essay must contain an introductory paragraph, a body (one or more
paragraphs as needed to explain your points, arguments or contention), and a
concluding paragraph ……………………………….. …Maximum
Content: The information presented in the response discussion must accurately
reflect the subject area of discussion…………..…………Maximum
Proper Use of English: This pertains to - the proper spelling of words, correct
punctuation and grammar, numbering of the pages and the inclusion of Source(s)
information (Footnoting & Bibliographical indicators) …....Maximum 5 points
A CHECKLIST OF REMINDERS TO STUDENTS
Students will lose valuable points if they do not adhere to the stated Guidelines
number the pages, except the very first page. Begin the numbering from page two
with the lettering “2." Then proceed accordingly.
Students must include Footnotes or endnotes and a Bibliographical listing of the
Avoid starting sentences with transition words such as “Because,” “And,” and
Avoid use of the words “thing” or “things” in writing and in verbal expressions.
These are vague and lazy words. There always is a substitute for such words.
Avoid all abbreviations. Example: USA, UN, couldn’t, wasn’t, isn’t, didn’t
etc. Always write/spell out the words. This applies in all cases including quizzes
limit the use of direct quotations. Paraphrase if necessary. If quotations are
used, remember to introduce your quotes. Ex., According to the writer, “....”
Mary Jones Brown argues, “.....” etc.
The Paper must be accompanied by notes used and made (rough drafts
included) during the writing process. Points will be deducted for non-compliance.
Did you number the pages of the assignment? Students are forewarned that
one (1) point will be deducted (except the first page) for each page that is not
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY, you may use any of these, or any other academic
source related to your topic and in accordance with criteria mentioned above.
Abernathy, David R. The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires, 14151980. New Haven, 2000.
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. 2nd. ed. Cambridge,
Bell, David A. The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680-1800.
Cambridge, Mass., 2001
Berkey, Jonathan P. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800.
New York, 2002.
Burk Holder, Mark A. & Lyman L. Johnson. Colonial Latin America. Oxford 2003.
Carrington, Selwyn H. H. The Sugar Industry and the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 1775-1810.
Carter, Vaughn Findley. The Turks in World History. New York, 2005
Conniff, Michael L. and Thomas J. Davis. Africans in the Americas: A History of the Black
Diaspora. New York, 1994
Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of
1492. Westport Conn., 1972.
Curtain, Philip D. Cross Cultural Trade in World History. New York, 1984
_________. The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex: Essays in Atlantic History.
Davidson, Basil. The African Slave Trade. Boston, 1980.
Diaz del Castillo, Bernal. The Conquest of New Spain. Harmondsworth, 1963
Elliot John H. Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America 1492-1830. New
Ellis, Geoffrey. Napoleon. New York, 1997
Eltis, David. The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas. Cambridge, 1999
Elton, G. R. Reformation Europe, 1517 - 1559. New York, 1963
Elvin, Mark. The Pattern of the Chinese Past: A Social and Economic Interpretation. Stanford,
Equiano, Olaudah. Equiano’s Travels. Oxford, 1967.
Fick, Carolyn. The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below. Knoxville,
Gay, Peter. The Enlightenment: An Interpretation. 2 vols. New York, 1966-’69
Gaspard, David Barry and Darlene Clark Hine, eds. Beyond Bondage: Free Women of Color in
the Americas. Chicago, 2004
Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan: From Tokuwaga Times to the Present. New
Harris, Joseph E., ed. Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora. Washington D.C., 1993
Hobsbawm. Eric. Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, and Reality. 2nd ed.
___________ & Terence Ranger, eds. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge, 1983
Itzkowitz, Norman. Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition. Chicago, 1972
Langley, Lester D. The Americas in the Age of Revolution, 1780-1850. New Haven, 1997
León- Portillo, Miguel. The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico.
Litwack, Leon F. Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. New York, 1979
Marx, Karl & Frederich Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Hamondsworth, 1967.
McNeill, William H. The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force and Society since A.D.
1000. Chicago, 1982.
Nash, Gary B. Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early America. Englewood Cliffs,
N. J., 1992
Oberman, Heiko A. Luther: Man between God and the Devil. New Haven, 1989.
Ormrod, David. The Rise of Commercial Empires: England and the Netherlands in the Age of
Mercantilism, 1650-1770. New York, 2003
Pagden, Anthony. European Encounters with the World: From Renaissance to Romanticism..
New Haven, 1993Princeton, 1998:
Palmer, Robert. The Age of the Democratic Revloution: A Political History of Europe and the
Americas, 1760-1800. 2 vols. Princeton, 1959-‘64
Pomeranz, Kenneth. The Great Divergence: China, Europe and the Making of the Modern
World Economy. Princeton, 2000
Savory, Roger. Iran under the Safavids. Cambridge, 1980.
Schama, Simon. The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the
Seventeenth Century. New York, 1987
Scheina, Robert L. Latin American Wars. Vol. I: The Age of the Caudillos, 1791-1899.
Washington D.C. , 2003
___________. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York, 1989.
Schwartz, Stuart B. Sugar Plantations and the Formation of Brazilian Society. Cambridge,
Sterns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History. Boulder, 1993
Thompson, E. P. The Making of the English Working Class. New York, 1966
Van Young, Eric. The Other Rebellion: Popular Violence, Ideology and the Mexican Struggle
for Independence, 1810-1821. Stanford, 2001
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