a short essay

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After reading the two presentations, I would like for you to write a short essay. 1-Choose one of the theatrical eras discussed in this week's class. 2- Put your self in the place of someone going to one of the plays and write a letter to a friend which contains the following information: -What kind of person would you be in this era? What kind of work do you do? - What are you wearing to watch this play? -When you finally take your seat (or standing position) what does the theatre look like? Finally: 3- What do you think the differences were from the person you were pretending to be attending a play in their era and you attending a play in the present time? Follow link: Elektra By Euripides Part One: The Playwright The shadow tragedian, Euripides, was born around 484 BCE. We say shadow because, Well… He was one. c. 484 BCE Syracuse, a city in Sicily, was the destination of the socially critical Euripides’ diplomatic mission- on at least one occasion. But other than that, little is known of Euripides’ life. It is rumoured that The Cave of Euripides on Salamis Island was where the playwright crafted his many tragedies. In 455 BCE, at 29 years old, Euripides was chosen to compete in the Athenian dramatic festival given in honour of the god, Dionysus- however he didn’t get his first win until 441 BCE. Ultimately, our tragedian won four drama prizes, one posthumously, and he was chosen 20 times to be one of three laureates for the festival honoured for outstanding achievement. Born in 484 BCE in Athens, Died in 406 BCE in Macedonia Euripides often used plot elements like revenge, suffering, and insanity- and often used the “deus ex machina” plot device. His epilogues were often in the viewpoints of the gods. Due to his real life scepticism of religion, he often depicted the gods as irrational and uninterested in offering “divine justice:. His characters were commonplace men and women that were flawed and vulnerable, and their fates came from their own intense passions and emotions resulting in meaningless suffering. It garnered indifference by the gods. His female characters were strong and complex, presented as either victims or avengers, such as in Electra. Contrary to his contemporaries, Aeschylus and Sophocles, Euripides wrote tragedies wherein the gods wrought havoc and destruction on defenseless mortals. His works were never widely received in Athens and, when invited by Macedonian King Archelaus in 408 BCE, he lived the remaining two years of his life there, in Macedonia. Elektra is not his most famous work In fact, Euripides wrote over 90 plays, only 19 of which were preserved wholly in manuscripts. During his later years, he began writing romantic dramas that had happier endings. After 415 BCE, he began writing songs that were objectively unsurpassed in their beauty and powerful lyrics. His work was often parodied, pointing to the fact that his works commanded attention, and his plays often provided relevant commentary. His most famous works include: ❖ Medea ❖ The Bacchae ❖ Hippolytus ❖ Alcestis ❖ The Trojan Woman Part two: The History A Warring Country and an Outdoor Theatre Elektra was written in the 410’s BCE, and its actual time of conception is unknown. During this time, the Peloponnesian War was raging, and wouldn’t end until two years after Euripides’ death- in 404 BCE. The war greatly affected Greece’s political climate, as the democratic Athens and oligarchic Sparta were often participants in a civil war. The Peloponnesian War brought a tragic end to a tattered Greece during the sunset hours of the 4th century (BCE). Euripides didn’t live to see the end of the conflict. The theatre in which the play was most likely performed was a large, outdoor theatre in Ancient Greece. Actors in masks and a Grecian Chorus During the portrayal of Euripides’ Elektra, there were likely three actors that would play all characters- by going backstage, changing masks and costumes, and then reappearing as a different character. Euripides was also known for using a chorus in his plays. Athens had a male-dominated society, so the majority of the patrons watching the play would have been males. Women weren’t considered a part of the citizenry, and were infrequently allowed to attend plays. Society being male dominated, and the plays only being performed by three actors, the plays had to be planned accordingly. A maximum of three actors could be on stage and when an actor had to change character there had to be enough time to get them ready. Slaves could have made scenes and transitions easier, but the strategic planning of the play was critical. Euripides was known for his commentary on current issues, and his portrayal of women almost opposed societal norm. Part three: The Play Elektra by Euripidies ELEKTRA: ORESTES: The estranged princess of Argos, daughter of King Agamemnon and Queen Clytemnestra. While deeply grateful for her commoner husband, she resented her mother and plotted her revenge. Her anger was not only for her throne, but for her slain father. She was a driving force behind her brother’s blade in their vengeance, and a victim of their shared guilt. She is steadfast in her beliefs, and committed to avenging the brutal betrayal and murder of her father. The brother of Elektra and son of King Agamemnon and Queen Clytemnestra. Life saved and sent away to be chaperoned by the king of Phocis, he returns to Elektra’s side years later with the king’s son, Pylades, as his companion. He is recognised by the servant that saved him by a scar that he’s had from his childhood. After the matricide committed by both Elektra and Orestes, he is crippled by his remorse, and with his sister, must atone for the murder (however just it may have been). PYLADES: The son of King Strophius and Queen Anaxibia (who is the sister of King Agamemnon). He befriends Orestes and was raised alongside him, later contributing to Orestes’ and Elektra’s plot to avenge Agamemnon. Elektra is set first in Mycenae, where the main character and namesake of the play, Elektra, daughter of Agamemnon, endures a marriage to a peasant. The peasant treats her with respect on many fronts, and Elektra awaits the chance to avenge the death of her father. CLYTEMNESTRA: A Spartan and the sister of Helen, she married King Agamemnon. Later, after the introduction of her lover, Aegisthus, she planned the death of her husband as an act of revenge- the King sacrificed her oldest daughter, Iphigenia, to win the war with the Trojans. A picture of a derelict modern-day Mycenae. The exposition of the play is during Elektra’s time in Mycenae with her husband, the peasant. Her life is simple and her husband pure- so, too, is her memory. She laments the loss of her father, and distresses the estrangement of her brother, Orestes. Simultaneously, Orestes convenes with his friend and quasi-brother, Pylades, and contemplates the whereabouts of his sister, Elektra. What could very easily be the inciting incident is the moment that Orestes realises that his feelings about his father are reciprocated by Elektra. After Orestes is recognised, Elektra and Orestes are able to experience a mutual relief and camaraderiePerhaps this venture to slay the “hateful child of Tyndareus” -that brought this grief onto the both of them- need not be experienced alone... Clytemnestra’s pleading for forgiveness is far-and-away the most climactic moment in Euripides’ Elektra. In this moment, Clytemnestra is full of sorrow, remorse, and self-perseverance. She expresses her understanding for her daughter’s clinging to her fallen father shortly before. By pleading to be spared, she presents the vitality of choice to Elektra and Orestes. CLYTEMNESTRA: O my children, by Heaven I pray ye spare your mother. Forgiveness is an option that neither child had prior considered, and her prayer for it being unanswered sealed the consequences for her children- and herself. Consequences. Ravaged by their grief and guilt, both Orestes and Elektra are instructed to atone. Perhaps they weren’t too out-of-place for having the dedication to avenge their father... But as is said to them by their uncles Castor and Pollux, there was still much to be ashamed for. The denouement of the play is in this, the guilt and suffering of Elektra and Orestes, for losing their father, And choosing to lose their mother and humanity in their quest for vengeance. “Thy sorrow comes too late; the hour of remedy has gone from thee; My father is dead.” Elektra by Euripides is a provocative take on a well-known story in Ancient Greece. It is exemplary in showcasing Euripides’ strengths as a tragedian. He crafts a window through which you are able to see characters for both their boons and banes, and cracks the pedestal on which deified characters stand for other playwrights. It is tragic and woeful in ways that were captured beautifully. He provides both superficial satisfaction for reader and character, and deep, internal conflict with heavy implication and reflection. Twelfth Night By: Shakespeare Created By: Edgar Pallares, Karen Marquez, Tara Martinez, Nicole Montes, Anh Nguyen, Yvette Ortiz, Shania Rael William Shakespeare’s Background Shakespeare's often used nickname is The Bard. People have often speculated that Shakespeare doesn’t exist at all because there is no clear records of his life except for when he was baptised, which was on April 26, 1564. He studied the languages Greek and Latin in grammar school. Shakespeare joined the Lord Chamberlain's Men, which was an acting company, in 1594. When one of company’s playhouse’s lease expired, it wasn’t until 1599 that they got a playhouse to perform at consistently. That playhouse was named the Globe. As Shakespeare became more famous, he was known as the “Company Man”, and was able to gain money from the profits the theatre’s made and not just get paid for his plays. Even to this day, Ben Jonson’s quote, “He was not of an age, but for all time!” still holds true Most Famous Play and Birth/Death According to statistics, Twelfth Night is not the most famous play coming from Shakespeare's works. For the play that is performed the most, it is A Midsummer Night’s Dream, followed by Romeo and Juliet, and then Twelfth Night. According to a study done in San Francisco, people were asked to name one of Shakespeare’s works, and the most common answer was Romeo and Juliet, followed by Macbeth and Hamlet. Since there isn’t much evidence of Shakespeare’s birth, using the date of the baptism, scholars have speculated that it was around April 23, 1564, in a small town called Stratford-upon-Avon. He died on April 23, 1616, in Stratford-uponAvon. The Season of Joy and Happiness Martinez By: Tara The 12th night took place in England during the Christmas season from 1601-1602.The set is Dukedom of Illyria. A place where the Elizabethans had no clue what it was and to me it was Shakespeare’s own fictional fantasy country. They didn’t know what Illyria was all about except that it was a beautiful garden and full of music! It is called the “12 Night” because it is the 12th night after Christmas. Shakespeare wanted Christians to be full of joy and happiness. He wanted the 12th Night to become a custom to all and Christmas to be full of entertainment! I believe he wrote this around Christmas season because it was the season of love and happiness. It was a romantic comedy. My belief was that at the end of the play Shakespeare and Christians concluded that love is pain! Type of Theater The Twelfth Night has a romantic atmosphere the theatre setting that best fits the atmosphere is a proscenium theatre. Who Performed In my opinion I believe performers that truly understand William Shakespeare’s writing and is introspective with lots of cherisma are the best to perform his plays. Who Watched The people that most likely would be watching this play are people who enjoy a twisted and shocking love story. The reason why is that the play is full of twist that circle around the love stories throughout the play. Throughout the entire play you read about so many characters confessing their love for each other and at the end we see the main characters actually get the happy ending they wanted, love. The previous information does influence the play because the people who were performing these characters had to have a passion for love stories or else they wouldn’t engage much feelings while they were performing. As well as the people watching the play influences what they think of the play and how they will critique the play. Because if someone who isn’t into romance watches this play they might find it boring and complicated but someone who actually enjoys romance will really enjoy it. The Exposition and Inciting incident The exposition of the play is when Viola and Sebastian meet again. The truth comes out about Viola hiding her identity and pretending she is actually a man. After all that is said and done it seems that everything just falls into place. I think the inciting incident is when Olivia calls Cesario her husband. When that happens people are left confused. But then Sebastian shows up and all is understood and fixed. Characters In Twelfth night, the major characters in this play are Viola/Cesario, Duke Orsino, Countess Olivia, and Malvolio. The minor characters in the play are Maria, Feste, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Sebastian, Curio, Valentine, a sea captain and Fabian. Viola/ Cesario: a young women that disguises herself as Cesario. Falls in love with Duke Orsino Duke Orsino: A powerful nobleman in Illyria. He is lovesick for Olivia, but becomes more fond of Cesario, who is Viola. Olivia: a wealthy, beautiful women that refuses to be in love with anyone in 7 years because the recent deaths of her father and brother. Characters Sebastian: Viola’s twin brother. Malvolio:Olivia’s servant who is in love with Olivia. A sea captain: The captain of the ship that sank while carrying Viola and Sebastian. Valentine: One of Orsino’s attendants. Characters Curio: One of Orsino’s attendants. Sir Toby Belch: Olivia’s uncle,a drunkard, lives at and leeches off of her house. Sir Andrew aguecheek: A friend of Sir Toby’s. He attempts to court Olivia. Fabian: An attendant in Olivia’s household. Feste: The clown, or fool of Olivia’s household. Maria: Olivia’s clever, daring young waiting-gentlewomen. Setting Twelfth night is set in Illyria, the Eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea covering pasts of Albania, Croatia, and Montenegro. That is a real place that existed in tenth century. The play begins with Viola and her twin brother Sebastian are shipwrecked in the land of Illuria. They end up washed ashore in different locations. The land of Illyria is the place that full of garden, music and lovesick citizens. Climax The climax occurs when Sebastian and Viola are reunited, causing their identities to be revealed to everyone, making them realize that Viola is a woman. This also leads to the conclusion of the marriages. Denouement After Viola and Sebastian reuniting, Fabian confesses and explains to Olivia that he was one of the plotters that tricked Malvolio when he was acting as an insane madman. After this, there are marriage preparations between Viola with Orsino and Sebastian with Olivia. Part Four: Edgar Pallares After reading Twelfth Night, I was expecting people to die at the end since it felt like it was leaning towards that ending, but it ended up being a happy ending, which I don’t mind since a lot of the stories I’ve been reading end up with everyone dying. The amount of dramatic irony in this story was ridiculous, not that that is a bad thing. My favorite passage that conveyed dramatic irony from this story is how Malvolia was pranked by Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and Maria by writing the letter of doing all these things that Olivia hates a lot. The fact that Malvolia didn’t know Olivia hated the things that were in the letter makes me feel that he kind of deserves it since he is Olivia’s steward and should know all sorts of things about Olivia, but that’s just me. Part Four: Karen Marquez After reading and analyzing this play, I feel that I did enjoy it and I did like it. Mostly what I liked was its sense of comic between the twins. For example, when they thought that the other twin was dead when they couldn’t find each other. With this, I felt like that is the kind of love they have as brother and sister and although they would probably feel something inside them when the other one dies, they say this as in a dramatic way that makes the audience think as if they were exaggerating. Overall, I enjoyed Viola’s character and thought it was interesting how she complicated things just by dressing up as a man. Part Four: Nicole Montes I enjoyed reading this play I love how the play was intended to be the best entertainment for the Christmas season. I feel like William Shakespeare tried showing us through a woman's perspective the best way to love. I feel like Olivia falling in love with a women that was disguised as a man was a big plot twist and very interesting but I am very glad Olivia still found love. I will say I had to read the play a few times to understand the english properly but overall really enjoyed this play. Part Four: Anh Nguyen “Twelfth night” is probably the most well rounded of all the Shakespearean comedies I have seen so far. I really enjoy the play. However, the action of the play is somewhat fragmented and characters seem to act merely on impulse. Shakespeare created a hilarious story of love, confusion and foolishness. Part Four: Yvette Ortiz Throughout the entire play I never found myself bored over it. I enjoyed every part of it. I really enjoyed feeling frustrated over the confusion with the twins Viola and Sebastian. The play was full of twist and tricks for example when Maria, Toby, and the fool make Olivia believe that Malvolio was insane. When Antonio thought that Viola was sebastian and that he betrayed him. Throughout reading the whole play I found myself on the edge of the sit just waited and rushing through it because I just wanted to finish it and see how it all unraveled up. I was also afraid to finish it because many Shakespeare plays end in a tragedy and I just wanted everyone to have a happy ending. I really enjoyed when Viola and Sebastian finally found each other. And the major twist of Olivia and Sebastian getting married and Orsino asking Viola for her hand in marriage. Part Four: Shania Rael I actually enjoyed reading this play. I never knew about it before now. I did come across something interesting while reading. I noticed the characters names all sounded familiar to me. I didn't think much of it until I read a bit more and started to understand what was going on. I finally realized it was very similar to a movie I used to watch during my early teen years. The movie is called, She’s the Man. I did some research out of curiosity and yes the movie was made to modernize the Twelfth Night. They both have the same names for their characters and the same idea of what was going on. I was so excited to connect the two and it gave me a better visualization and understanding of what was happening. I enjoyed reading this play. Source Links rintsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button#v=onepage&q&f=false ...
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