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Biomaterial Scaffold for Tissue Engineering
A bio-scaffold is a substance that can substitute an organ either temporarily or permanently
for functionality to be restored. The material used depends on the intended use. The tissue
engineering requires specific requirements for its application. Tissue scaffold is among the uses in
field of tissue engineering, and it provides either temporary or permanent support for its
application. Material application in the engineering field began in the 17th century where
individuals used wood to reinstate the role of the limbs. However, the usage of resources in
medicine increased attention. Using artificial material resulted in an inflammatory response of the
Using engineered tissues started in the early 1980s. One reason why tissue engineering
continues to grow is that of the multidisciplinary nature whereby it is vital to combine medicine,
biology, chemistry and engineering fields to come up with the right design of the material. Tissue
engineering aims at restoring the broken organs and tissues to their normal functionality (Chen
and Xiaohua 86). The resource utilized in tissue engineering could also be temporal or permanent.
A temporary structure provides the necessary support until the tissue regains its strength and shape.
These categories of scaffolds are useful, primarily where young patients are involved where the
tissue has higher growth rates, and there is no desire in using an artificial organ. However, in cases
involving old patients, the temporary scaffolds cannot meet the requirements. It would result in a
lack of adequate mechanical strength and a mismatch between the growth rates of the tissues.
Therefore, older patients require a firm scaffold which should be strong or have a low degradation
rate. Majority of the work involving scaffolding is done on provisional scaffolds due to the merits
of the resources utilized and the processing ease. The engineers have encountered difficulties
replacing tissues which have served biomechanical functions in the body.
The use of Xenografts, Allografts, and Autografts have been successfully used in tissue
engineering because they are compatible and the host tissue recognizes them. However, concerns
have been raised due to infection and second site morbidity. This resulted in alternatives in
developing alternative tissue engineering methods. Individuals started using synthetically derived
materials for scaffold purposes and later seeding cells to grow natural tissue. Tissue engineering
application ranges from human cells to animal cells. Great number of the tissues, and organs are
vital and despite the early success, there have been challenges in repairing the tissues (Balint et
The biological tissues can be categorized as nonlinear, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and
viscoelastic materials. Scientists have not understood the fundamental basis of their behavior.
Also, the researchers are yet to determine the essential aspect of the mechanical properties essential
for the normal functioning of the various tissues. A quantitative measure of the graft material,
structure and composition are needed for the successful outcome of the functional tissue
engineering. Tissue engineered products are biomechanical but still, there have been few reports
on the material. For instance, investigators have reported either mechanical properties of grafts
before implantation or sacrifice (Croisier and Jérôme, 781).
Most of the current biomaterials depend on the materials` early concept that cannot be
implanted should be bio inert and constructed to result in minimal tissue response. However, the
clinical data that has been on the rise indicates that the materials cannot last for long because they
are affected by the high failure rate which is mainly caused by interfacial instability. The developed