Draft for Research Essay

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Question Description

Draft, Review, and Reflect:

  1. Step 1: Complete a rough draft of your research paper. When it is complete, write three categories in which you feel your essay could be stronger, or choose areas in which your writing has shown weakness in the past. Also remember to submit this draft to TurnItIn.com! It will allow you and your instructor to see the "originality index" which will help you determine if you are using too many sources. Depending on its length, your paper should fall below 25 to 30 percent similarity in terms of the use of outside sources.

Research Question: What are the primary ways of decreasing recidivism in women offenders who have substance abuse issues?

This must be turned into a clear concise thesis statement.

Putting the Draft Together

Now that you have a sentence outline (sentence outline attached), you should easily be able to take the pieces and put them together. After you have your draft together, read it a couple of times – especially out loud, correcting basic mistakes you may find.

As you put this draft together, remember that it must be 8-10 pages in length, include a minimum of five sources, contain a Works Cited page, and be formatted in MLA style. The title page and Works Cited page do not count toward the final page requirement.

I have included my sentence outline as well as my annotated bibliography. Please read my instructor's feedback regarding my sentence outline and take into consideration when developing the draft:

Hi,

You have some good research here, and you are on your way to a solid research paper. I am going to share a few pieces of advice so that you will be successful. Please visit the links I provide as well as the links provided in turnitin.com. It is important that you see my specific comments here.

The thesis must clearly assert an arguable judgment, and this argument should not be self-evident. If a reasonable audience is unable to argue your point , then the argument is too weak. One way to make sure your thesis is arguable is to use words like "need" and "must". Another way is to present the opposition by using "Although" in your thesis. A solid thesis is clear, concise, specific and arguable. You should consider including a road map for your reader with including the how or why to your thesis. The thesis you have is too specific for your paper. Your thesis is about drug abuse, but you present other factors that cause recidivism.


Remember that your thesis is your promise to the audience. You should have only one focus, and that is to prove your thesis. Your topic sentences should support your thesis and provide the organization for your body paragraphs. Additionally, each body paragraph should have only one focus. Think of your thesis as X. You have only one reason for your paper and that is to prove X. You will use A, B, C, D and E to prove X. Therefore, nothing in your paper should be included unless it proves X. Make sure that every topic sentence supports X.

Make sure you avoid first and second person. This means you should avoid I, we, us, you. You should also avoid contractions.

Write concisely. Readers should not have to wade through words to find meaning. Many writers make this mistake. Choose your words and work on concision. Visit this link to learn more.

http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/writing-concisely/

Think about submitting your work through Smarthinking. The link is located on your homepage under the Services tab. This is a student support service with peer reviewers and tutors can help you revise and edit. They will focus on the areas you request, and the turnaround time is usually 24-72 hours

I am also including a link to an MLA sample paper. It is a good idea to compare your paper with the example provided.

MLA Sample Papers

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Annotated Bibliographies Bales, William D., and Daniel P. Mears. "Inmate social ties and the transition to society: Does visitation reduce recidivism." Journal of research in crime and delinquency 45.3 (2008): 287321. This source is mainly concerned with enhancing a successful transition of female offenders from prison environments into the society. Often, offenders would usually have a social stigma of some kind that might make them fall to criminal activities. Successful transition into society means that there should be enough time spent with an inmate to ensure that there is a successful transition into society. Inmate visitation is neglected but would significantly reduce the issue of relativism. The source used data from the Florida Department of Corrections and tested the different hypothesis that is how visitation affects the race and even the age of female inmates which are the intended audiences, (Bales page 300). My opinions on this on this are that the results of the findings indicated the function of visitation in reducing recidivism. Visitation is used as a means of engaging female inmate with the society and thus averting any feeling of dissatisfaction which is a consequence of societal withdrawal which might be a motivation for participating in a criminal behavior once again after conviction as my search strategy. Christine E. Grella, Ph.D and Luz Rodriguez. “Motivation for Treatment among Women Offenders in Prison-Based Treatment and longitudinal Outcomes among Those Who Participate in Community Aftercare”.2011. Retrieved From: https:// www.ncbi.nlm .nih.gov/pmc /articles/P MC3244804/ The emphasis here is the different factors that might enhance in motivation in the lives of female offenders. Female offenders are different from male offenders, and this is primarily because as compared to male offenders, a significant percentage of females commit less severe criminal activities, (Christine page 190). Female offenders are the intended audiences. Motivations that have been enlisted in the source includes how it is possible to determine how to address the different issues that affect the females, for instance, they might be undergoing various kinds of mental problems like depression, would result into female being unable to engage in constructive activities. Addressing the mental health is a significant step in enhancing motivations especially drug offenders. My opinion to this is that motivations would usually take the form of after-care programs which helps female offenders perceive their worth in the society. This prevents withdrawal from society and above all recidivism thoughts because it averts any feeling of hopelessness. My search strategy is that, employment projects have also been enlisted as a significant way of enhancing the participation of women in society and effecting reintegration. Javdani, Shabnam, and Valerie R. Anderson. "Physical Health Needs and Treatment for Female Offenders Returning to Society." Female Offenders and Reentry. Routledge, 2017. 36-52. Drug abuse has been significantly linked to criminal activities as a result of the altered mental judgment of individuals. Offenders and female use different illegal drugs are not an exception as they too use the drugs, with Marijuana leading the rank of most abused drug that contributes to recidivism among females. Therefore their physical health needs requirements that if adhered to might results in recurrence as the immediate solutions to their woes. Often, offenders especially those who were convicted with drugs related crimes, have a lot of barriers which impacts negatively on their physical health, (Javdani page 40). They are unable to determine the different ways in which their conditions prevent them from accessing physical health, for instance, they might not be able to make a follow-up for their prescription refills and even other important health records. This further has devastating impacts on their transition in their respective communities. My opinion to this is that, through enhancing the physical health of individuals through support within the community, it becomes relatively more straightforward to prevent female offenders from experiencing a relapse and this being my search strategy. Gallant, David, Emma Sherry, and Matthew Nicholson. "Recreation or rehabilitation? Managing sport for development programs with prison populations." Sport management review 18.1 (2015): 45-56 Sports within the prison might be taken for granted among many inmates. Some of the inmates who have been incarcerated lack the basic understanding of recreational understanding to the wellbeing of female inmates. The study although had a total cover of both the genders, but the results were similar across all the genders that were studied, that is both the female and the male gender, (Gallant page 48). Players are the intended audiences. Limited study has been conducted on the impacts of recreational activities. Recreational activities within prisons have three main aims that enhance health and wellbeing, promote inmate rehabilitation and inmate management. Sports programs within correctional facilities enable the inmate to find a purpose when they are out there, which implies what they can participate in. Furthermore, sports require management and thus promoting an attitude of adhering to advice when out there which reduces recidivism. My opinion to this is that sports have significant positive outcomes on the inmate’s mental health as well as behavioral changes. My search strategy is that, sport need to be free and fair to accommodate everyone. National Offender Management Service. “Effective interventions for Women Offenders: A Rapid Evidence Assessment”.2015. 11-23 Retrieved From: https://assets .publishing.service .gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/448859/effectiveinterventions for-women-offenders.pdf The main objective of the source is to bring forth the intervention programs that can is used when addressing recidivism among female offenders. Therefore before the participation of any effective program, there is a need to ensure the stability of the female offender. Stability can be in the form of mental health especially for the female’s offenders who are involved in the abuse of drugs. Furthermore, there is a need to encourage a prosocial identity among women. This, therefore, means through having self-worth within the society, and it is possible for female offenders to avoid criminal activities. Women are the intended audiences. However, there is need to ensure as much as the women are prosocial, there is need to gradually and vigorously terminate links with peers and even attitudes that might influence the decisions of female offenders who might encourage recidivism among females, (National Offender Management Service page 15). My opinion to this is that the effectiveness of programs would entail on directing focus on high-risk offenders, those that are readily predisposed to criminal activities because of their conditions. My search strategy to this is that women are the back born of the society and must be respected. Senser, Brittani. Clinical Interventions that Reduce Recidivism among Female Offenders: A Systematic Review. (2017). 67-112. Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Catherine University repository website: https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/783 Furthermore, there are clinical practices that can help females offenders avoid recidivism. Some of the clinical interventions that are encouraged include cognitive behavioral therapy. Often, incarceration of female offenders might result in a PTSD, which affects the mental stability of the offender, (Senser page 80). The intended audiences to this are the people with cognitive behavior. Therefore the cognitive behavioral recovery aims at promoting the psychological improvement of the female offender, and this is concerned with trauma recovery and substance abuse recovery. Furthermore, another part of the intervention is to provide support during the incarceration period as well as after the incarceration. My opinion to this is that the latter is done as it takes into consideration the changes in societal attitudes to a female offender and thus aims at ensuring the offender can brace themselves for the changes through offering necessary support. My search strategy is that support might be as a result of a therapeutic community treatment which is aimed at enhancing an effective resilience. National Offender Management Service. “Better Outcome for Female Offenders.” 2015. RetrievedFrom:https://assets.publishing.service.gov.UK/government/uploads/system /uploadads/attachment_data/file/457922/Better_Outcomes_for_Women_Offenders_September_2 015.pdf Many factors have been proposed which results in reoffending among female offenders. Therefore by addressing some of the different factors, it becomes easy to prevent recidivism among female offenders. Some of the factors that have been enlisted include mental health needs, struggling with substance abuse, fragile family contact, and poor emotion management. The intended audiences of this are the female offender. Emotional support is crucial can be provided in the form of providing a helping hand whenever possible for instance through showing a helping hand whenever possible and considering female offenders as part of the community thus enhancing access to social capital, Through enhancing access to social capital it becomes easier to promote family support. It is also important to provide necessary treatment for personality disorder, (National Offender Management Service page 270). My opinion to this is that, borderline Personality Disorder is common among the female offenders, thus taking a holistic therapeutic approach helps deal with this kind of personality disorder, and this might include meditation for instance which helps an individual engage in consciousness which promotes self-awareness as my search strategy. Works Cited Bales, William D., and Daniel P. Mears. "Inmate social ties and the transition to society: Does visitation reduce recidivism?." Journal of research in crime and delinquency 45.3 (2008): 287-321. Christine E. Grella, Ph.D and Luz Rodriguez. “Motivation for Treatment among Women Offenders in Prison-Based Treatment and longitudinal Outcomes among Those Who Participate in Community Aftercare”.2011. 182-231 Retrieved From: https:// www.ncbi.nlm .nih.gov/pmc /articles/P MC3244804/ Javdani, Shabnam, and Valerie R. Anderson. "Physical Health Needs and Treatment for Female Offenders Returning to Society." Female Offenders and Reentry. Routledge, 2017. 3652. Gallant, David, Emma Sherry, and Matthew Nicholson. "Recreation or rehabilitation? Managing sport for development programs with prison populations." Sport management review 18.1 (2015): 45-56 National Offender Management Service. “Effective interventions for Women Offenders: A Rapid Evidence Assessment”.2015. 11-23 Retrieved From: https://assets.publishing.service .gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/448859/effective-interventions -for-women-offenders.pdf Senser, Brittani. Clinical Interventions that Reduce Recidivism among Female Offenders: A Systematic Review. (2017). Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Catherine University repository website: https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/783 National Offender Management Service. “Better Outcome for Female Offenders.” 2015. RetrievedFrom:https://assets.publishing.service.gov.UK/government/uploads/system 276-300 /uploadads/attachment_data/file/457922/Better_Outcomes_for_Women_Offenders_Septe mber_2015.pdf Murray 1 Ta-Ronce Murray Professor Melynda McBride English 102 20 October 2018 Ways of Decreasing Recidivism in Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Issues Recidivism is the act of repetition of negative behavior that may result in adverse impacts either on the individual or other people. Recurrence occurs after an individual receives punishment for the undesirable behavior more than once. Also, repetition refers to the portion of prisoners arrested more than one time from the same crime. The number of women offenders with substance abuse issues remains on the rise in criminal justice. Research performed on the percentage of women offenders with substance abuse issues shows that the percentage estimates at 30-60% of the female offenders (Strang et al. 117). The close relationship between substance abuse and crime increases the percentage of recidivism in women offenders with substance abuse issues. Returning offenders can benefit through the provision of programs like prison entrepreneur program (PEP) or proper treatment to prevent recidivism. The prevention of recurrence collectively contributes to safer environments in the long run. Research Question: What are the primary ways of decreasing recidivism in women offenders who have substance abuse issues? Review of Sources Rosemary Sheehan and Chris Trotter explain about the Better Pathways strategy developed by the Victoria’s Department of Justice in their book; Women’s Transitions from Prison: The Murray 2 Post-Release Experience (Trotter and Sheehan 67). The percentage of women involved in crime remains on the rise despite the massive gap between male and female offenders. The female offenders with substance abuse issues are even rising higher which equates to higher cases of recidivism. Sheehan and Trotter concentrate on different programs and services like the Better Pathways that focuses on the support needs, treatment, and accommodation of female offenders. The pathway’s primary purpose is to ensure reduced cases of repetition of offenses while preventing substance abuse among female offenders. The transition from prison to normal society proves challenging for most offenders. One of the significant needs for the female offenders is the need for support after imprisonment in the community to find places to live, jobs, and outside support systems. Women’s Transitions from Prison: The Post Release Experience provides aggregate information regarding approaches effective for reducing recidivism among female offenders with substance abuse issues. Research performed by the criminal justice and behavior department provided various results regarding the provision of skill programs concerning the levels of recidivism by female offenders. The authors of the Cognitive Skills Programs for Female Offenders in the Community research, Emma J. Palmer, Clive, R. Hollin, James McGuire, and Ruth M. Hatcher performed analysis on a group of 801 offenders from the English and Welsh Probation Service. The programs used included Think First and Enhanced Thinking Skills (Palmer et al. 358). The quasi-experiment performed lasted a year and compared offenders who did not complete the program to those who finished it and another group that did not receive the skills programs. The results showed that the non-completers of the programs possessed a higher level of recidivism as compared to the group that completed the programs. Murray On the other hand, no significant difference occurred between the group that completed the program and the one that did not go through the program. The main issue addressed by the research regarded the use of applications and their effect on recidivism. The evidence received showed that programs actively reduce recidivism among female offenders. Continuing care is another manner through which recidivism can remain low among female offenders dealing with substance abuse. Preeta Saxena, Nena P. Messina wrote a journal, and Christine E. Grella under Women and Criminal Justice called Continuing Care and Trauma in Women Offenders’ Substance Use, Psychiatric Status, and Self-Efficacy Outcomes provides insight on the importance of continuing care even after prison (Saxena et al. 116). The authors performed research provided by secondary data regarding various female offenders’ treatment programs. 85 participants received continuing care while 108 receives aftercare treatment from prison or the community. The research results showed that women offenders with substance abuse issues recorded not only lesser rates of recidivism but also reduced substance abuse with the help of continuing care and trauma-informed attention. The sources provided clearly show that recidivism among female offenders with substance abuse issues can decrease through the use of programs, continuing treatment programs, and the use of trauma-informed attention to offenders (Strang et al. 98). The lack of use of such intervention manners might lead to the rise in levels of recidivism. However, primary research performed in the sector contribute to the use of programs for the treatment of recurrence. A Plan to Collect Information Completing this research remains of high importance. First, I intend on using interviews as a manner through which I can collect appropriate first-hand information to use as evidence in my research. The local community center contains a program involving women offenders dealing 3 Murray 4 with substance abuse issues that address the problems of causes, effects, and preventive measures of recidivism. Conducting interviews with some of the members of the program is the first step toward implementing interviews with my research. Second, I plan to visit the women’s correctional center to interview some of the offenders who already possess the knowledge provided by treatments and programs striving at reducing recidivism. The process of interviewing different participants ought to take two months. Every Tuesday and Wednesday for the time frame directly goes to the community center interviews while Mondays and Thursdays aim at correctional center interviews. An Overview of Challenges Most women offenders with substance abuse issues do not take pride in speaking about their pasts or wrongs performed. Therefore, the first challenge that I face is finding participants willing to talk about their offenses to a stranger. Finding reliable and willing participants in my research might take some time. Time is my second challenge. If my first challenge regarding trust develops in the more significant case, then my research and process of collecting information might take longer than expected. Also, if my study realizes that the programs and treatment approaches used in reducing recidivism among female offenders with substance abuse issues possess little impact, the research findings might remain altered. Conclusion Women offenders with substance abuse issues record elevated levels of recidivism. However, different approaches like programs and treatment prove that recidivism levels can decrease and remain minimum. The incorporation of treatment and programs to women offenders continues to assist the offenders in and out of prison positively. Some of the effects of such applications include the reduction in recidivism, reduction in substance abuse, and the Murray assistance in fitting back into the community without scrutiny, reduced trauma, and protection from previous experiences and influence (Strang et al. 34). The use of programs incorporated in prison also benefits correctional facilities as with reduced levels of recidivism arises lower operational and systems costs undertaken by the correctional facilities. 5 Murray 6 Works Cited Palmer, Emma J., et al. "Cognitive skills programs for female offenders in the community: Effect on reconviction." Criminal justice and behavior 42.4 (2015): 345-360. Saxena, Preeta, Christine E. Grella, and Nena P. Messina. "Continuing care and trauma in women offenders’ substance use, psychiatric status, and self-efficacy outcomes." Women & criminal justice 26.2 (2016): 99-121. Strang, Heather, and John Braithwaite. Restorative justice: Philosophy to practice. Routledge, 2017. Trotter, Chris, and Rosemary Sheehan. Women's Transitions from P ...
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