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Music

Answers For Indonesia

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Cuyamaca College

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1. What does the term “gamelan” mean?
Answer: A traditional instrumental ensemble of Indonesia, typically including many bronze percussion
instruments.
2. The term laras refers to the tuning system in Javanese gamelan. What are the names of the two
systems and how many pitches do they have?
Answer: Slendro pentatonic, 5 pitches, equidistant Pelog heptatonic, 7 pitches.
3. What is colotomic structure and how is this utilized in gamelan music?
Answer: Colotomic structure marks a specific fixed beat within a metric structure by a particular
instrument. In gamelan music, it is utilized by marking off a music into temporary units according to an
entrance of a specific instrument in a specific order at specific times.
4. Discuss the history and/or layering of religions that exist in Indonesia. What makes Bali unique
concerning religious development?
Answer: The layering of religion comes from separation due to powers. Due to the amount of tourists
that also visit the country, Bali’s development has also changed. It can also be considered that the
different courts in Indonesia have different powers and ideas, causing this layering in Indonesia’s
Religions and History.
5. What role do gamelan ensembles play in establishing and legitimizing royalty and power? How does
the Javanese bedhaya song and dance reflect this assertion of status?
Answer: The role gamelan ensembles play in establishing and legitimizing royalty and power revolves
around idolatry. The Javanese bedhayasong and dance reflect this assertion of status because the
spiritual power in the gamelan translates into power of their owners.
6. What is wayang kulit? How long do these performances last? Who is the dalang and what important
role does he play in maintaining history and culture?
Answer: A shadow puppet theatre accompanied by a gamelan. Performances generally lasts over the
course of a whole night. Dalang is a master puppeteer who performs in a karawitan (learned music in
the Javanese tradition. The dalang connects the community with its cultural history and values. The
dalang also has the power to contact the spirit world during ancestral ceremonies

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7. List ways in which the modern ensemble of Gong Kebyar is dramatically different than other Balinese
gamelan ensembles in both form and function.
Answer: Gamelan used to begin starts off with a solo on the kebyar and a loud ensemble. Kebyar
incorporated dance into the performance. Performers went into a crouched position beginning on the
same level as the musicians. The modern Gong Kebyar is different than the other Balinese gamelan
ensembles. Balinese ensembles dropped or introduced new instruments to the genre creating new
music.
8. What is Balinese kecak? How does the organization and performance of this style of music mirror
gamelan music? What Hindu epic is typically enacted during kecak performances?
Kecak is a form of Balinese dance and drama that was developed in the 1930s. Gamelan music requires
alarge ensemble same with the kecak which is performed by a large chorus of men chanting rapidly. The
kecak renacts a shortened version of the Ramayana.
9. How does kecak differ from other Balinese trance rituals? What affected this development?
Answer: The art of kecak expresses the value of balance and harmony while other Balinese trance rituals
depicts struggles of good/evil. Like all culture, everything evolves and changes and the barong helped
Balinese communities reach a medium between the supernatural worlds.
10. The __________________ is another kind of Balinese trance ritual that has been adapted for
tourists. It represents the struggle between good (an awesome but benevolent lion) and evil (a
horrendous and malevolent witch).
Answer: Barong
11. How does popular gambus music reflect Middle Eastern origins in its instrumentation and style?
Answer: Gambus uses a small double headed drum called amara wisor. The style that reflects the
Middle Eastern origin uses upbeat rhythms and a vocal timbre that are easy for listeners to dance to.
12. __________________ is a popular Indonesian music that is an extraordinary mix of Western rock
and Indian film songs.
Answer: Dangdutis
13. How does the popular genre kroncong reflect colonial history in Indonesia? What is the
instrumentation of kroncong?

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Answer: The kroncong style of music started when the Portuguese brought their instruments to the
country. The instruments that are used in kroncong are the flute, violin, cello, and a variety of other
stringed instruments.
14. List ways in which the performance of kroncong and gamelan are similar, even though the
instrumentation is quite different.
Answer: The flute and the violin became like the suling and rebab, providing free heterophonic
elaboration of the melody. The cello played pizzicato in rhythms resembling kendang-like drum patterns.
15. The ______________________ style of pop music has the unique characteristic of being derived
from a style of professional folk entertainment of _________________ (West Java) and does not have
foreign derivations or influences like other popular genres reviewed.
Answer: (1) Jaipongan (2) Sunda
16. A young musician named _______________________ was responsible for introducing the
amalgamation of various Sundanese musical components that started the jaipongan craze in 1974.
Answer: Gugum Gumbira
17. How has tourism affected traditional arts in places like Java and Bali? Positive or negative?
Answer: In Bali, the traditional dance that the people there performed to welcome spirits, is now
performed to welcome people with power and status. This has a somewhat negative effect due to the
fact that the true meaning of the tradition may be lost and replaced with a tradition that was born from
tourism.
18. The national motto of Indonesia is “__________________________________”. How does this
statement reflect Indonesian demographics and history?
Answer: “Unity in Diversity”. This represents the openness of Indonesians to embrace different cultures
and merging them with theirs. Just like the Portuguese and their instruments which they adopted.

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1. What does the term gamelan mean?Answer: A traditional instrumental ensemble of Indonesia, typically including many bronze percussioninstruments.2. The term laras refers to the tuning system in Javanese gamelan. What are the names of the twosystems and how many pitches do they have?Answer: Slendro pentatonic, 5 pitches, equidistant Pelog heptatonic, 7 pitches.3. What is colotomic structure and how is this utilized in gamelan music?Answer: Colotomic structure marks a specific fixed beat within a metric structure by a particularinstrument. In gamelan music, it is utilized by marking off a music into temporary units according to anentrance of a specific instrument in a specific order at specific times.4. Discuss the history and/or layering of religions that exist in Indonesia. What makes Bali uniqueconcerning religious development?Answer: The layering of relig ...
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