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PSY -300- week 1- Foundations of Psy- Paper dox-orig-work




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When we think about the word psychology we can understand that the word has been around for
quite some time. We can also look up that the foundations of psychology have been around for
many of years. In the reading in Chapter 1, we can learn that there was in fact some woman that
helped develop psychology. One name that might not come to mind to some people is Mary
Calkins. Mary was born in 1863 and was refused from going to further her education in
psychology because she was a woman. There was some test taking that she did perform such as
some of the test for Mr. William James. He allowed her to take several of his graduate seminars
as individual studies to help her learn and understand better. In 1905, she was selected as the first
woman president of the American Psychological Association and, the following year, was listed
as the twelfth leading psychologist in the United States (O’Connell & Russo, 1980; Wentworth,
1999). As we can learn psychology hasn’t just been around for a few decades but it has been
around for over hundreds of years. As we all know the study of psychology or psychological
behavior has been around since the early 1800’s and we have learned more about the features of
the behavior and why a person does or acts the way that they do. The connection involving the
brain and behavior became more clear during the nineteenth century, when doctors began
observing patients with bad head injuries. These patients often showed deficits in language and
memory or dramatic changes in their personality. One of the most famous cases was Phineas
Gage, who worked as a foreman on a railroad site. As we learned and progressed more about the
behavior during head injuries we have learned that this had to do with the brain. We have been
able to study this in animals to make it more efficient in humans as well. In 1836, a physician
named Marc Dax presented a paper suggesting that lesions on the left side of the brain were
associated with aphasia, or language disorders. We now know that the left side of the bran would
have to do with language. The first theorists to address this issue were psychologically

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sophisticated anthropologists like Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict, who were interested in the
relation between culture and personality (Bock, 2001; LeVine, 1982).They argued that individual
psychology is fundamentally shaped by cultural values, ideals, and ways of thinking. As children
develop, they learn to behave in ways that conform to cultural standards. There is a major in
Europe which was called the psychoanalytic theory. This was developed by Austrian
psychologist Freud, who we all know about while learning about behavior and thought. In the
1950’s a new movement began to behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory. The people of the
movement thought of behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory dehumanizing and they took the
name, humanism, for their movement. This is where the people’s emotions and own free will was
important in the human nature or humanism movement. The most recent school of thought
would have to be the cognitive theory. This movement happened in the 1970s era, and it focused
on mental processes. The main idea of this movement is that humans take in information from
their environment through their senses and then process the information mentally. The people
would also want to know what dreams meant and when someone would have a dream they may
wake up and write down what it was about and then try to diagnosis the dream and try to figure
out what that mean the person was going through or try to predict the future. We have also
learned while reading in Chapter 3 that biological factors can alter the brain which can affect
how we think at the current moment of time. When a person gets their nervous system messed up
by a car accident or by another accident, this can affect the brain as well as the spinal cord which
can affect how a person thinks and acts. Stress can also affect how a person thinks. We can think
of a person that is stressed out. There are some people that have to be on medication because of a
trauma or because of a nervous breakdown that they have been through in the past. I think that
it’s important for all of us to watch our stress level and only sweat the big ticket items that might

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