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PSY -300 week 2 DQ 3.docx orig-work.

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Week 2
DQ 3: What are the Gestalt principles? What do these principles reference?
This is also known as the law of pragnanz.
1. Figure ground- this principle shows our perceptual tendency to separate whole
figures from their backgrounds based on one or more of a number of possible variables,
such as contrast, color, size, etc. As our attention shifts, the ground also shifts so that
an object can go from figure to ground and then back. Ground is sometimes thought of
as background or negative space.
2. Tips-Clearly differentiate between figure and ground in order to focus attention and
minimize perceptual confusion.
3. Camouflage-Camouflage is the deliberate alteration of figure-ground so that the
figure blends into the ground.
4 Similarity-Gestalt theory states that things which share visual characteristics such as
shape, size, color, texture, or value will be seen as belonging together in the viewer’s
mind.
5 Proximity- The Gestalt law of proximity states that "objects or shapes that are close to
one another appear to form groups". Even if the shapes, sizes, and objects are radically
different, they will appear as a group if they are close together.
6 Closure-The satisfaction of a pattern encoded, as it were, into the brain, thus
triggering recognition of the stimulus. This can involve the brain's provision of missing
details thought to be a part of a potential pattern, or, once closure is achieved, the
elimination of details unnecessary to establish a pattern match.
Continuity-The edge of one shape will continue into the space and meet up with other
shapes or the edge of the picture plane.
Order-Order has connotations of stability, consistency and structure
Response 2
Gestalt also known as the "Law of Simplicity" states that every stimulus is perceived in
its most simple form. It is a psychology term which means 'unified whole". Gestalt have
several principles, which consists of the following:
1. Similarity- which occurs when objects look similar to one another. They are often
perceived as a group or pattern.
2. Continuation- Occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and

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continue to another object.
3. Closure- occurs when an object is incomplete or a space is not completely
enclosed. If enough of the shape is indicated people perceive the whole by filling in the
missing information.
4. Proximity- occurs when elements are placed close together, they tend to be
perceived as a group.
5. Figure and Ground- The eye differentiates an object from its surrounding area, a
form, silhouette or shape and is naturally perceived as a figure (object). While the
surrounding area is perceived as ground (background).
The principles reference how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or
unified wholes when certain principles are applied.
Response 3
The Gestalt principles are simply the way we perceive visual experiences. When we
look at an scene, or object there are many things we need to understand. By breaking
these variables down into groups and subgroups, it allows our brain to understand what
we are seeing and which part we should focus on given the visual goal. Within the
group of Gestalt principles there are five principles which complete the visual goal.
These principles are:
Figure: The object is differentiated from its surrounding, creating a focal point. The
object is perceived as the focus, while the surrounding area is considered the 'ground'
or base.
Proximity: Proximity is as simple as grouping object to create a larger object. The
individual shapes or objects are assumed to be one larger object because of their close
proximity.
Continuation: This occurs when the eyes are prompted to move naturally from one focal
point to another. The eye is compelled to move form one object to another seamlessly.
Closure: Closure occurs when an object is not completed, but the visual perceiver fills in
the missing information. An example would be a picture of a giraffe where part of the
neck is not present. The perceiver would fill that part in using his/her prior perception
from the visual experience.

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Similarity: Similarity is when shapes or objects seem to form a group because of their
visual similarity. When one of the perceived similarities has enough distinction to be
noticed, this has created an anomaly. For example, a group of blue bubbles all painted
together, but one bubble is yellow. It is still perceived to be part of the bubble group, but
has been labeled as an anomaly from the attention it draws away from the rest of the
group.
Response 4
The Gestalt principles are rules in form perception that the brain automatically and
unconsciously follows as it organizes sensory input into meaningful wholes.
These rules include the following:
figure-ground perception: where the brain identifies the figure or words on the page
and differentiates from the background.
Similarity: the grouping of similar items together
proximity: the grouping of items that are very close to each other
good continuation: the grouping of items in a continuous form and not separate items
simplicity: the identification of the simplest pattern
closure: viewing incomplete patterns as complete.

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