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PSY -300 -week -2 DQs

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Week 2
DQ 1: How do classical conditioning procedures differ from operant conditioning
procedures? How are they similar? In your opinion, which learning process is more
effective? Why?
Conditioning happens with the interaction people receive from their surroundings.
According to behaviorism, behavior can be calculation of a methodical and visible
method with no thought of the inner mind state. The two key types of conditioning are
classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is a method used
in behavioral teaching that logically happens from motivation that is balances by
reaction. Operant conditioning known as instrumental conditioning is a way of learning
that happens from rewarding and punishing for actions. I believe that the effectiveness
depends on a person’s childhood, so both can be very effective
Response 2
Classical conditioning is a behavior modification that teaches to respond in a "wanting"
or desiring manner. For example, if a child knows that if he/she uses the bathroom in
the potty then he/she will get a cookie. I find this method sort of like bribing in a sense,
because the subject gets excited and the mouth starts watering for the treat at the end
which therefore will make the subject crave for it later. Therefore while craving for it, the
child will always be using the potty. Operant conditioning is the method that is used for
punishing or rewarding for a behavior. This method seems to be more effective to me,
because it doesn't seem like bribery. The two are similar in a sense because they can
both be used as a form of discipline for the subject. Hope this makes sense. Thanks.
Response 3
In classical conditioning the "environmental stimulus initiates a response" whereas in
operant conditioning "a behavior initiates a response". The main examples in our
textbook include Pavlov's dog experiment as classical conditioning because the ringing
of the bell (environmental stimulus) initiated the dogs to salivate because they were
expecting food. In Thorndike's cat experiment the cat "learned" that hitting the latch
would open the door that would get them to the food, so the behavior produced a
response that they liked and they continue to produce that behavior so they could get to
the food.
In both classical and operant conditioning extinction and spontaneous recovery are both
possible. For example, in Pavlov's dog experiment extinction can occur in classical
conditioning if the bell keeps ringing and the food is no longer present on a continual

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basis and in Thorndike's cat experiment, if hitting the latch no longer opens the door to
allow them to get to the food, they will stop attempting to open the latch. In both cases
spontaneous recovery can occur by reemergence of a response.
I believe that operant conditioning is more effective because the person has control
over their actions and can make a choice of what behavior to choose based on the
effect of that behavior. For instance, a child can choose to study hard for a test
knowing that they may be rewarded and knowing that if they do not study and get a bad
grade, they may be punished by being put on restrictions. In operant conditioning, the
person does not have control over the environment.
Response 4
Classical and operant conditioning differ mostly in that the classification as such
depends solely on which comes first: behavior produced or environmental catalyst? I
like to think of classical conditioning as a catalyst producing a behavior associated from
a prior experience, where the operant conditioning produces behaviors that occur
before the environmental catalyst ever comes into play (the behavior is more
psychological at this point). The two types of conditioning are similar in that the
conditioning revolves around an environmental factor, and the end result is still base on
that factor or catalyst. The behavioral reactions after the conditioning are what splits
these two apart. I believe that both types of conditioning are effective. Choosing which
way to condition the participant of the study would depend on what the desired end
result may be. If the experimenter desired to create a phobia, using the operant
conditioning would be more effective in creating a psychological fear of an
environmental factor because the behavioral response would occur innately. If the
experimenter desired to create a more learned behavior (Law of Effect) experience,
classical conditioning would seem to me to be the better choice because the behavioral
response would not be based on anything innate.
Wk. 2 DQ 2: How does sensation and perception affect learning? Provide an example
of each.
In the Merriam-Webster dictionary, “Sensation is defined as a mental process (as
seeing, hearing, or smelling) resulting from the immediate external stimulation of a
sense organ often as distinguished from a conscious awareness of the sensory
process. Perception is defined as awareness of the elements of environment through
physical sensation.”

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