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The following is a summary of policy-making in the Digital Age.
Policy-making and its subsequent application are essential to deal with communal problems.
Interventions of policy might be costly, have long-term use, affects groups of various citizens or
the whole country, and are not easily undone. Information and communication technology and
models can improve the quality of policy-makers. To realize the advantage of this development
in the digital world, concepts, new approaches, instrument, and methods are needed that can deal
with societal and computation complexity. Policy-makers and those in charge of policy
implementation accept that information and communication technology is becoming more and
more fatal and is charging the policy-making process, resulting in next-generation policy-making
based on ICT support. The policy-making method is confronted with increasing complexity and
uncertainty of the results that raise a need for developing policy models that can deal with this.
To raise the validity of the models, policy-makers are harvesting data to generate evidence.
Policymakers are always faced with conflicting solutions to complex issues, making it necessary
for them to rest out assumptions, resolution, and interventions.
When a societal need is identified, the formulation of a policy has to be done. Members of
parliament, politicians, executive branches, interest groups, and a court might be involved in this
formulation. Implementation of the policy is done by organizations other than those who
participate in the formulation process. This process is very involved in such that many

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stakeholders play an essential role. Public values carry out the management of complexity and
give some guidance. There is a wide variety of PVs. It can be long-lasting or might be driven by
contemporary politics. Technology has an infusion that changes policy processes at both the
group and individual level. The policy-making process depends on data about existing policies
and situations of making decisions. In policy execution and implementation, many actors are
involved and there are a big number of factors influencing the results. Simulation modelling
should capture the vital aspects of reality. This do not depend heavily on mathematical
abstraction and therefore, are suitable for modelling complex systems.
Disciplines in E-government has been shaped using different terms, including e-policy-making,
computational intelligence, digital policy science, data sciences, policy informatics and digital
science.
This summary has covered comprehensively policy-making in Digital age in which different
development and disciplines have been captured from the perspective driven by Information and
Communication Technology development. Aspects for social and professional networking and
disciplinary constituency making along the axes participative process, technology, governance,
social simulation, policy modelling visualization are investigated.
References
Banks J (1998) Handbook of simulation: principles, methodology, advances, applications, and
practice.Wiley, NewYork Bertot JC, Jaeger PT, Hansen D (2012) The impact of polices on
government social media usage: Issues, challenges, and recommendations. Gov Inform Q 29:30
40 Burt E (2011) Introduction to the freedom of information special edition: emerging
perspectives, critical reflections, and the need for further research. Inform Polit 16(2):9192.

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The summary Name of Student Institution Affiliation The following is a summary of policy-making in the Digital Age. Policy-making and its subsequent application are essential to deal with communal problems. Interventions of policy might be costly, have long-term use, affects groups of various citizens or the whole country, and are not easily undone. Information and communication technology and models can improve the quality of policy-makers. To realize the advantage of this development in the digital world, concepts, new approaches, instrument, and methods are needed that can deal with societal and computation complexity. Policy-makers and those in charge of policy implementation accept that information and communication technology is becoming more and more fatal and is charging the policy-making process, resulting in next-generation policy-making based on ICT support. The policy-making ...
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