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Psy 450 Traditional and Nontraditional Culture 2

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Running head: INTELLIGENCE TESTING ARTICLE ANALYSIS 1
Intelligence Testing Article Analysis
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INTELLIGENCE TESTING ARTICLE ANALYSIS 2
Intelligence Testing Article Analysis
One very well researched subject in the field of psychology is intelligence. Intelligence
is a cognitive process according to the perspective of a psychologist and refers to one’s ability of
understanding the environment correctly by adapting to it, possessing the ability to reason
rationally, and able to solve problems by applying the needed resources if necessary. The way
intelligence is comprehended and interpreted may not only vary between individuals but also
differs from one culture to another and explains why there are endless intelligence tests trying to
acquire what is considered ingenious or not. Testing human intelligence is also one of the most
controversial assessments performed by the psychological discipline. Several factors explain this
dissension and include validity of tests, the nature versus nurture debate, and cultural prejudice.
In this paper, the author will comprehensibly explain intelligence and will examine theories of
intelligence by relating the subject to specifically selected articles. In addition, the effectuality of
intelligence testing will be further analyzed.
Definition of Intelligence
Intelligence is something that not only varies in its definition from one individual to
another but also may diverge between cultures. For instance, an individual may believe ones
math skills are what make a person intelligent whereas another could think knowing more than
one language is the key to being intelligent. On the other hand, someone living in a remote rural
area such as New Zealand requires different skills compared to a person living in a modern city
like Honolulu. Clearly, the skills needed to survive in either area will vary but both are major
contributors to what is thought of as intelligent in either culture. The deviations of defining
intelligence leads to the assumption there being several types of intelligences and might even
mean that intelligence is a unitary quality. Surely, many definitions of intelligence make it more

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INTELLIGENCE TESTING ARTICLE ANALYSIS 3
arduous to grasp entirely what intelligence is and led many psychologists wonder if there is a
general intelligence, or if there are several mental abilities contributing to one’s intelligence,
which are marked by several dimensions. Because there are numerous elucidations of what
intelligence may be or not, the delineation is very challenging and agreeing on only one
definition may be impossible at times. This explains why there are a myriad of theories trying to
unfold the epitome of intelligence (Segal, Dasen, Berry & Poortinga, 1999).
Theories of Intelligence
Various theories attempt to explain not only what intelligence is but also how intelligence
is and should be tested. The first proposed theory came from Charles Spearman in 1927, who
formulated a two-factor theory claiming that there is a general intelligence, called g, and a
specific one made of different skills known as s. Almost 10 years later, Louis Leon Thurstone
suggested another perspective to intelligence. Thurstone postulated the multifactor theory by
examining 57 distinctive tests performed by high school students. He concluded that there are
numerous primary mental performances such as perception, reasoning, number ability, and others
explaining that there is more than one factor resulting and contributing to one’s intelligence.
Another interesting view supporting the multifactor theory came from E. L. Thorndike, who
believed that there is more than one dimension expounding intelligence. He dissented with the
opinion of there being only a g factor and formulated three major forms of intelligence referred
to as abstract, practical, and social. Joy Paul Guilford extended Thorndike’s thoughts of there
being more than one dimension of intelligence and invented the multifactor approach of
intelligence. His theory presented a three-dimensional framework containing five groups of
operations, four sorts of content, and six types of products. The hierarchical theory proposed by
Philip E. Vernon illustrated that intelligence is made of several factors being ordered in a

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