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Psy 450 Traditional and Non-traditional Cultures 3




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Psychological Disorder
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Psychological Disorder
Human development and socialization are militated by various factors including one’s
culture, environment, predispositions, and perceptions all interplaying with another. Life itself is
a journey allowing one to pass through certain life stages. How well one turns out to be is
dependable on how smoothly these stages are reached. The importance of human development
and socialization and how much they are intertwined in one’s life to sometimes induce certain
disorders will be illustrated in this paper. The author of this paper will critically examine anxiety
disorders. By analyzing these disorders, the relationship between human development and
socialization will be explained and its effect on anxiety development will be addressed.
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders are very common, as research reports that approximately 29% of the
United States population will endure an anxiety disorder at some point of his or her life and are
seen in every culture. Various anxiety disorders indicate more than one leading factor
contributes to the development of these disorders. Clearly, genetic factors play a significant role
because studies performed on twins indicate that if one twin suffers from anxiety, the other has a
30% greater chance suffering from it too. Besides that, research concluded that a specific gene
implicated in the formation of the neurotransmitter serotonin could be affiliated to a person’s
characteristic level of anxiety. This information leads to the discoveries that chemical
deficiencies occurring in the brain can cause an anxiety disorder. Behavioral psychologists also
suggest anxiety disorders being a learned response to stress and are triggered by the
environment. Furthermore, the cognitive perspective proposes anxiety disorders grow out of
wrongly formed thoughts of one’s view. The five major anxiety disorders as listed followed are

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the phobic disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder,
and posttraumatic stress disorder (Feldman, 2010).
Phobia Disorder
Individuals suffering from a phobia are intensively afraid of specific objects or situations.
Most often, phobias develop in childhood (mean age is between 11 and 17), affects 11% of
general population, women twice more often than men, and certain ethnic groups such as African
American and Latinos are at higher risk (Alloy, Riskind, & Manos, 2005).
Panic Disorder
A panic disorder is accompanied by panic attacks lasting for few seconds to several
hours. Panic disorders do not have discernible induction and can appear at anytime and
anywhere. Physical symptoms differ between individuals and may encompass sweating or
shortness of breath. Panic disorders appear generally early to middle adulthood and certain
cultures (Caribbean) experience panic attacks more often when compared against other cultures.
The symptoms can also vary between ethnic groups and factors such as age, gender, and
economic status may influence panic disorders (Alloy, Riskind, & Manos, 2005).
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Individuals experiencing generalized anxiety disorder endure long periods of worry and
relentless anxiety. The persistence and severity makes these worries develop into a disorder.
This disorder is prevalent in older age and in women, affects five percent of world population
and individuals who are divorced, homosexuals, unemployed or widowed are more vulnerable
(Alloy, Riskind, & Manos, 2005).

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