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BIOL 307 Wk 1 Carbohydrates Function Within the Human Body Discussion

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Biology

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university of maryland

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Discussion

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Article 1 Question and Answers
1. What is a carbohydrate? Give two examples of how carbohydrates function within
the human body.
Carbohydrates are organic compounds that are rich in energy and made up of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are broken down into 3 groups, which are;
monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and disaccharides. Carbohydrates are important because
they provide energy and well as regulate blood glucose. “Carbohydrates impact your glucose
and insulin metabolism. (Mayo Clinic 2012)”
2. Why is a high carbohydrate intake bad for you? What diseases in the aging
demographic does high carbohydrate intake effect?
A high carbohydrate intake can increase risks of developing heart problems, diabetes, and
obesity. A high Carbohydrates intake is bad because if can affect your cognitive functions,
“Those who reported the highest carbohydrate intake at the beginning of the study were 1.9
times likelier to develop mild cognitive impairment than those with the lowest intake of
carbohydrates. (Mayo Clinic 2012)” It can also cause you to develop type 2 diabetes. “High
levels of sugar may actually prevent the brain from using the sugar -- similar to what we see
with type 2 diabetes. (Mayo Clinic 2012)"
3. What does the article suggest people should do and why?
The article expresses how a balance is important. People should have a balance protein,
carbohydrates, and fat in their diet because they support effective function in the body.
Reference
Mayo Clinic. (2012, October 16). Eating lots of carbs, sugar may raise risk of cognitive
impairment. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 15, 2020 from
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121016092154.htm

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Article 2 Questions and Answers
1. Describe the cytoskeleton. Describe and the roles of microfilaments,
intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
The Cytoskeleton maintains cell’s shape. It also secures organelles in specific positions. The
cytoskeleton allows cytoplasm and vesicles to move within cell, and enables unicellular
organisms to move independently. There are three types of fibers within the cytoskeleton:
microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. The Microfilaments are made up of
two intertwined strands of actin. Microfilaments assist with cell movement. Intermediate
filaments are made up of fibrous proteins coil into cables. They provide mechanical support for
the plasma membrane. The microtubules are hollow tubes that main functions are
maintenance of cell shape, cell motility, chromosome movement, and organelle movement.
2. What are fibroblasts? How are fibroblasts related to the cytoskeleton?
Fibroblasts are the predominant cells of connective tissue. They are responsible for the
formation and maintenance of the fibrous components and the ground substance of connective
tissue. Fibroblasts are a type of cell found in the connective tissue of the body's organs, where
they produce proteins such as collagen (King’s College London 2013)” Apparently there are 2
types that have been discovered. One type of fibroblasts is in charge of repairing skin wounds,
while the other one is needed for hair growth. Fibroblasts related to the cytoskeleton because
it has a cytoplasm. The cytoplasm has a cytoskeleton that helps give it shape.
3. Explain how the new finding in the article about the two types of fibroblasts
contributes to research about the aging process.
The new finding in the article about the two types of fibroblasts contributes to research about
the aging process because the researcher believes that the increasing of these fibroblasts can
help reduce scarring. Also the researcher believes theses fibroblast can help with skin elasticity.
“Changes to the thickness and compostion of the skin as we age mean that older skin is more
prone to injury and takes longer to heal. It is possible that this reflects a loss of upper dermal
fibroblasts and therefore it may be possible to restore the skin's elasticity by finding ways to
stimulate those cells to grow.( King’s College London 2013)”
Reference
King's College London. (2013, December 11). Skin's own cells offer hope for new ways to repair
wounds, reduce impact of aging. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 14, 2020 from
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131211134153.htm
Libretexts. (2020, May 15). 4.5: The Cytoskeleton. Retrieved June 16, 2020, from
https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book:_Gener
al_Biology_(OpenStax)/2:_The_Cell/04:_Cell_Structure/4.5:_The_Cytoskeleton

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Article 1 Question and Answers 1. What is a carbohydrate? Give two examples of how carbohydrates function within the human body. Carbohydrates are organic compounds that are rich in energy and made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are broken down into 3 groups, which are; monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and disaccharides. Carbohydrates are important because they provide energy and well as regulate blood glucose. “Carbohydrates impact your glucose and insulin metabolism. (Mayo Clinic 2012)” 2. Why is a high carbohydrate intake bad for you? What diseases in the aging demographic does high carbohydrate intake effect? A high carbohydrate intake can increase risks of developing heart problems, diabetes, and obesity. A high Carbohydrates intake is bad because if can affect your cognitive functions, “Those who reported the highest carbohydrate intake at the beginning of the study were 1.9 times likelier to develop mild cognitive impairment than those with the lowest intake of carbohydrates. (Mayo Clinic 2012)” It can also cause you to develop type 2 diabetes. “High levels of sugar may actually prevent the brain from using the sugar -- similar to what we see wi ...
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