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MGMT 659 SFSU Backward Scheduling & Theory of Constraints Questions

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Management

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San Francisco State University

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Application Lesson 31
Part I (10 points each)
1. What are time fences in the master production scheduling process, and how are they used?
Time fences, in management, are defined as periods of time having some specified level of
opportunity for the customer to make changes. The purpose of time fences is to maintain a
reasonably controlled flow through the production system. Time fences are used to control the
forecast requirements from automatically into the next zone. Time fences assist with stability of
planning to ensure the operation moves smoothly. In order for time fences to be effective there
must be cooperation in all areas of management.
2. What is backward scheduling and how is it used?
Backward scheduling starts from some date in the future (typically the due date) and schedules
the required operations in reverse sequence. This type of scheduling shows the very latest
moment an order can be started and still meet the due date. Material requirements planning and
manufacturing resource planning are examples of backward scheduling. Backward scheduling, in
manufacturing, is used to ensure that all parts needed for a finished product are started at the
exact time, so they are completed at the same time and there are no delays during assembly of
the finished product. This helps companies ensure that if they know there is a bottleneck in the
production process, they can accurately plan when they need to start production to meet the
required completion date.
Open
Frozen
Start of
Time
Current
Time
Early
Fence
End of
Time
Planning Data Model
Time

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3. Explain the concept of Theory of Constraints.
The main concept of Theory of Constraints is that every process has a single weakest link and
the total process can only be improved when the weakest link is improved. Unless the root of the
problem is addressed, the weakest link or constraint, improvements will not further the end goal,
achieving more profit. The way the theory works, according to Goldratt is as follows:
Identify the system constraints (no improvements are possible unless the constraint is
found)
Decide how to exploit the system constraint (make it as effective as possible)
Align every other part of the system to support the constraint, even at the expense of
efficiencies elsewhere in the system.
Elevate the system constraints (acquire more resources so it is no longer a constraint)
If you have broken the constraint, go back to step one and find the next weakest point and
go through the process again.
The ultimate goal is to increase the productivity of a firm by identifying the issues within the
system that are causing inefficiencies.
4. What is evidence-based medicine, and how does it differ from more traditional medical care?
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the application of the scientific method to evaluate
alternative treatment methods and create guidelines for similar clinical situations. It is the
development of standard methods for therapeutic interventions. Decisions in evidence-based
medicine are based on the most current, reliable scientific evidence and are based on the care of
an individual patient. It also improves the quality of care because it is individualized.
Patient Values and
Preferences
Best Evidence
Evidence-Based
Medicine

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Application Lesson 31 Part I (10 points each) 1. What are time fences in the master production scheduling process, and how are they used? Time fences, in management, are defined as periods of time having some specified level of opportunity for the customer to make changes. The purpose of time fences is to maintain a reasonably controlled flow through the production system. Time fences are used to control the forecast requirements from automatically into the next zone. Time fences assist with stability of planning to ensure the operation moves smoothly. In order for time fences to be effective there must be cooperation in all areas of management. Planning Data Model Open Frozen Time Start of Time Current Time Early Fence End of Time 2. What is backward scheduling and how is it used? Backward scheduling starts from some date in the future (typically the due date) and schedules the required operations in reverse sequence. This type of scheduling shows the very latest moment an order can be started and still meet the due date. Material requirements planning and manufacturing resource planning are examples of backward scheduling. Backward scheduling, in manufacturing, is used to ensure that all parts needed for a finished product are started at the exact time, so they are completed at the same time and there are no delays during assembly of the finished product. This helps companies ensure that if they know there is a bottleneck in the production process, they can accurat ...
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