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RS 210 Core Features of Protestant Belief Study Guide Exam 2

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RS 210 Study Guide Exam 2
Core features of Protestant belief God promised America. Catholics Suck. Authority anchored - Bible.
Baptism, Communion, Grace (Salvation), Church is priesthood, Center on Jesus, Belief is
foreground.
Covenant theology God promised America to the Protestants. New Eden, Zion.
Deism Religion of “reason”; with God through natural law. Voluntarism and religious tolerance. Growing
religious diversity, influence of enlightenment, experience-based influence of the Awakening.
Denominationalism Invented to keep track of all groups without saying anything good or bad about
them.
Enlightenment Protestantism among educated and elite people. Anti-Catholic, respected Bible and Jesus
but believed that God was revealed in Nature, Reason, and Law. Separated Church and State.
First Great Awakening 1725-1760s, Jonathan Edwards from Conn., “The born again” experience.
Stressed importance of emotions, regenerated Christianity, God grants the experience through
grace, conversion is in your Heart.
Grace The experience granted by God.
Jonathan Edwards Congregationalist theologian from Conn., most famous figure for the period.
Legalism Motivated by fear of a judging God whom the followers have to please.
Pilgrims -
Protestant Reformers: Hus-Bohemia, Calvin-Switzerland, Knox-Scotland, Luther-Germany
Puritans British Protestants who after 1559 argued that Episcopalianism was too much like Catholicism.
Expected more strict observance of the faith and promoted covenant with God. Persecuted in
England. Francis Higginson leader.
Church polities: Episcopal Hierarchical, Apostolic succession, bishops’ power comes from apostles.,
Congregational Quakers, Local Community, circular shape, Pure: Local only, Associational: Groups of
congregations. Run by consensus i.e. voting and elections. Presbyterian Authority of elected
elders, power flows bottom to top and top down, elected constitutional gov, have a session,
presbytery, synod, or general assembly.
Virginia first Protestant settlement (Episcopalian)
Voluntarism Idea that church membership is a matter of choice, not inheritance or geography. Grace.
Second Great Awakening 1790s to 1820s, Religious division of labor by sex, Cult of true womanhood
women charged w/ moral/political education of young, make home “especially Christian”, Bridge
the ideas of no state church and a fundamentally Christian America. Led into abolition of slavery.
Anne Hutchinson Midwife and early public minister; tried for heresy and banished for public preaching.
Cult of true womanhood Women put on a pedestal, Political/moral education of the young, “especially
Christian” home, religion in home is a woman’s calling.
Feminization of religion Women must Christianize husbands and sons. Extended moral influence into
society and abolitionist movements began. Today: debates about women in religious leadership
continue.
Core features of Catholicism Sacramental, emphasis on rituals and communities, sacraments are means
by which God acts, salvation comes through church by grace, tradition and scripture are equal,
communal emphasis, Mass is central act of worship, Purgatory.
American Party Formed by Know Nothing Movement, secret political society to combat foreign
influence; ran for office on principle of hating Catholics.
American Protective Association 1887-1911 (Know Nothing Movement) ensured quota on Catholic
immigrants. Limited Cath, Jews, Blacks, and Asians in country.
Americanism “American Catholicism” from Liberal Irish Theologians (John Ireland, John Keane, John
Lancaster Spalding). Germans went to pope and condemned Americanism in 1899. He feared
new division and set tone for isolated, conservative Catholic Church until 1960s.
Apostolic succession Line of bishops stretching back to the apostles.
Cardinal Pastor of parish Church of Rome, votes to elect Pope.
German Triangle Milwaukee, Cincinnati, and St. Louis.

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Jesuits, Dominicans, Carmelites, Benedictines, Franciscans Holy orders that work independently of
bishops.
KKK Target blacks, Jews, and Catholics.
Know Nothing Movement Secret Political Society who formed American Party, American Protective
Association, and revitalized KKK. Hated Catholics.
Monsignor Priest w/ honorary office as member of papal household.
Nativist movements and Catholic response Know Nothing Movement caused extreme Catholic
withdrawal and patriotism: Formed extensive social and educational communities. Among 1
st
to
enlist, deplored tactics of evangelicals. Stressed organized church and sacraments.
Papal infallibility
Purgatory Place you go after you die before heaven and hell to wait eternal judgement.
Salvation Comes to people through Church, BY the grace of God.
Seven sacraments Baptism, Communion, Confirmation, Reconciliation, Last Rites, Marriage, and Holy
Orders.
Transubstantiation The Eucharist becomes actual body and blood of Christ during Mass.
Vatican II Lessened boundaries between Catholics and other Christians, affirmed separation of Church
and state, redefined Church as people of God, Increased democracy, implemented Americanism,
reduction in abstinence, goodwill, opened to biblical scholarship.
Adventism Many groups, largest is Seventh Day Adventists. Believe in imminent return of Jesus.
Allegorical or metaphysical interpretation Allegorical is understanding the Bible as
symbolical/metaphorical. Metaphysical is “beyond the physical” that the true identity of humans
is found in the spiritual world.
Alternative religions Different Therefore Threatening, cults worship that involves charismatic leader
and a God; Media connects these religions with tragedies, clash w/ culture, attacked in media.
Apocalyptic Predict and expect the return of Jesus Christ and the ending of the world.
Book of Mormon Ancient record of the Americas which CJCLDS focuses upon. One of 2 great religious
texts from America.
Book of Revelation Last book of the Bible which speaks of the second coming of Jesus Christ.
Charles Russell Pastor” Inspired by Jonas Wendall who predicted the end in 1874. Predicted 1914. Was
a founder of the Jehovah’s Witness with J.F. Rutherford. Published Zion’s Watchtower and Herald
of Christ’s Presence.
Christian Science -
CJCLDS Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Found in 1830 by Joseph Smith, Jr. Joseph Smith was
lynched in 1844 and was succeeded by Brigham Young and went west. Abandoned polygamy in
1890 in order to gain statehood (The Great Accomodation). Believe in a living, pope-like prophet
Joe Smith and all following LDS Presidents, authority of “correctly translated” Bible.
Conditional Immortality No immortal soul. The dead enter soul sleep until Advent and Judgment Day.
The good wake up and join God.
Cult Worship that involves charismatic/cultural leader and a God.
Doctrine and Covenants -
Earthly (Elisha) Class The “other” believer class in Jehovah’s Witness. Everyone else who is given
everlasting life on Earth.
Ellen White Seventh Day Adventist who had 2 visions the year Bill Miller predicted. 1) 1844 Advent
occurred, not on Earth, but in inner sanctuary of heavenly temple. 2) 7
th
day of week, Saturday,
was Sabbath.
Heaven’s Levels: Celestial, Terrestrial, Telestial Celestial is the highest kingdom where all Mormons will
go. Christians will go to Terrestrial and bad people will go to Telestial.
Heavenly (Elijah) Class Exactly 144,000 Jehovah’s who rule Earth with Jesus from heaven. Number was
“sealed” in 1914; date of Russell’s original prophecy.
J.F. Rutherford “Judge” Founded the Jehovah’s Witnesses w/ Charles Russell. After prison, worked to
revitalize the movement. Empowered all Witnesses to be Ministers. Resist Government and war.

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RS 210 Study Guide Exam 2 Core features of Protestant belief – God promised America. Catholics Suck. Authority anchored - Bible. Baptism, Communion, Grace (Salvation), Church is priesthood, Center on Jesus, Belief is foreground. Covenant theology – God promised America to the Protestants. New Eden, Zion. Deism – Religion of “reason”; with God through natural law. Voluntarism and religious tolerance. Growing religious diversity, influence of enlightenment, experience-based influence of the Awakening. Denominationalism – Invented to keep track of all groups without saying anything good or bad about them. Enlightenment – Protestantism among educated and elite people. Anti-Catholic, respected Bible and Jesus but believed that God was revealed in Nature, Reason, and Law. Separated Church and State. First Great Awakening – 1725-1760s, Jonathan Edwards from Conn., “The born ...
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