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Transmission of Action Potential from Node to Node to Node Practice

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Review for Second Exam Fall 2017
1. As you go over these questions, which follow fairly closely with the DQs, power point slides,
and lectures, make sure you answer the questions I posed in class on the ppt slides you have.
Many of those are re-asked here, but possibly in a slightly different manner. But, if I posed a
question in lecture and thought it was important enough to put in your power point slides, then
it is worthy of review. Hopefully, you have already answered those questions.
2. Know these terms and be able to use them (put them together!): axon, dendrite, resting
potential, cell body, collaterals, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier, action potential, graded
potential, threshold, pre- and post-synaptic membrane, depolarization, hyperpolarization,
synaptic transmission, IPSP’s; EPSP’s, saltatory conduction transmission of the action
potential from node to node to node, nodes of Ranvier, temporal summation, spatial
summation, integration of signals, neurotransmitter, recruitment, motor neuron pool,
myelin, sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneurons, dorsal root ganglia, ventral horn, and
neuromuscular junction.
3. Be able to discuss how EPSPs and IPSPs influence the electrical potential of the motor
neuron pool and to determine whether an action takes place or not on a given motor unit.
Where do the EPSPS and IPSP’s come from that influence the motor neuron pools?
4. Why are interneurons in the spinal cord important? Help mediate spinal reflexes and
5. What are some examples of spinal level reflexes? How do we know that they are spinal level
and not brainstem or cerebellar level? (M1, M2, M3 loops) Can spinal level reflexes be
inhibited? Why? Why not? What mechanisms are involved? (Use terms from terms listed
above.) (This answer from early in this section and later in the section.)
6. What are CPG’s? What is the animal evidence for CPG’s? Is the evidence that they exist in
humans? If so, describe.
7. What is a motor unit (small vs. large)? How is force increased gradually? What determines
recruitment and the size principle? Threshold. How is control of a fine motor skill, like
surgery, accomplished and how does that differ from hammering a nail? Or throwing a shot
put? Fine motor skills will use smaller motor units while gross motor skills will use larger
motor units.
8. What is kinesthesis? How does it differ from proprioception? What are some ways
proprioception contributes to motor control? Which proprioceptors are more important for
kinesthesis?
9. Trace the path from the sensory receptor (such as GTO or muscle spindle) to the cerebral
cortex.
10. Know what these terms refer to: adequate stimulation, intensity coding, and sensory
adaptation. How do they contribute to utilizing sensory information in an effective manner?

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11. Describe what sensory receptors are involved in proprioception. What specific information
does each provide to the nervous system - i.e., identify what each receptor is most sensitive to
(its stimulation specific characteristic). (Include the vestibular apparatus!)
12. The vestibular systems functioning is important for what kind of motor tasks? What reflexes
are based on input from the vestibular system?
13. Be able to identify which sensory receptor is related to a specific situation for example,
which is firing more rapidly in the bicep while flexing the arm muscle spindles or GTO’s?
14. Where is proprioception processed in the cerebral cortex? In the cerebellum? How do you
know when you are flexing your arm? How does that differ from when you are flexing your
arm while holding a weight? Or flexing your right arm versus your left arm?
15. What causes a stretch reflex? How does it differ from the functional stretch reflex? How do the
muscle spindles contribute to voluntary movement? When do we use a functional stretch
reflex? How does it make the movement more forceful?
16. Why should people not bounce when stretching out?
17. How can we move without proprioception? What happens to movement without it? What
happens to spinal level reflexes when a person is deafferented? What was the one type of
proprioception that was still intact in the people who were given B6 as an antidote for toxins
from the mushrooms? How do you know it was functioning? What evidence was there in this
video that vision can be used to compensate for the lack of proprioception? What happened
when he closed his eyes? Could he move, if so, what was it like?
18. How do neurons that have cell bodies in the primary motor cortex cause muscle fibers in the
fingers to contract? Trace the path.
19. Where are the following areas and how do each of these areas contribute to the control of
movement: association cortex, somatosensory cortex, primary motor cortex, premotor area,
supplementary motor area, basal ganglia, thalamus, corpus callosum, cerebellum, dorsal
column system, corticospinal tract, motor neuron, sensory neurons, spinal interneurons,
sensory receptor. Give a general timeline for how these parts would be involved in a
movement, i.e., what parts are involved in organizing the cognitive plan? in motor planning?
in execution? in receiving sensory feedback? Be able to put them in a general order of
involvement when planning and executing a movement.
20. What is the homunculus and describe its main characteristics i.e., what is noticeable about it?
How does the homunculus contribute to the control of precise movements? What is the
evidence that the mapping of function onto the cerebral cortex can shift based on
environmental input (i.e., evidence the brain is plastic)?
21. What are some characteristics of the corticospinal tract? What kinds of movements are
mediated by this tract? What type of movements does this tract exclusively innervate?

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Review for Second Exam – Fall 2017 1. As you go over these questions, which follow fairly closely with the DQs, power point slides, and lectures, make sure you answer the questions I posed in class on the ppt slides you have. Many of those are re-asked here, but possibly in a slightly different manner. But, if I posed a question in lecture and thought it was important enough to put in your power point slides, then it is worthy of review. Hopefully, you have already answered those questions. 2. Know these terms and be able to use them (put them together!): axon, dendrite, resting potential, cell body, collaterals, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier, action potential, graded potential, threshold, pre- and post-synaptic membrane, depolarization, hyperpolarization, synaptic transmission, IPSP’s; EPSP’s, saltatory conduction – transmission of the action potential from node to node to node, nodes of Ranvier, temporal summation, spatial summation, integration of signals, neurotransmitter, recruitment, motor neuron pool, myelin, sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneurons, dorsal root ganglia, ventral horn, and neuromuscular junction. 3. Be able to discuss how EPSPs and IPSPs influen ...
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