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Food Safety Study Guide Exam II

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Lecture 10
Sedative and Analgesics I
Neurotransmitters
- Ionotropic ligands vs. metabotropic ligands
Effect of Neuroactive Drugs
- Tranquillizers, sedatives, hypnotics, narcotics
o Narcotics usually opioids and habit-forming drugs
- Antidepressants (not use in anesthesia)
Tranquillizers and Sedatives
- Tranquilizers
o True tranquillizers have a maximal effect: increasing dose beyond this only increases duration and side effects
o No drowsiness
o Examples: Phenothiazines (Acepromazine), Butyrophenones (Azaperone)
- Sedative and Hypnotic Agents
o Increasing dose will increase effect until deep sedation/sleep
o Marked CNS depression
o Drowsiness, but can be aroused by loud noise and pain
o Examples: Alpha 2 agonists (Dexmedetomidine), Benzodiazepines
o Problem with these drugs is 1) dose dependent, 2) species variation
Phenothiazines
- Acepromazine most used in vet med.
- Labelled for dogs, cats, horses
- Injectable, tablets or oral paste (not in USA)
- Not controlled by DEA
Drugs
MOA
Indications
Overdose
Phenothiazines
Dopamine antagonists in CNS;
esp. D2 receptor
Decreased motor activity and
behavior modification
- Abnormal movements
- Tremors
- Rigidity (extrapyramidal
signs)
- Acepromazine
o general effects

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Steep dose/response curve
Calms patient
Anti-emetic
Mild antihistamine action
Care with intradermal skin testing
Impairs temperature control hypothermia
Vascular alpha1 receptor blockage vasodilation
Transient fall in PCV (splenic sequestration) may or may not
No reversal agent for acepromazine
No analgesic properties but can enhance analgesic properties of opioid
Cats tend not to do well/respond well with acepromazine
o Cardiorespiratory effects
Heart rate no consistent change or either way
Hypotension do not treat with epinephrine (epinephrine reversal)
Reduces myocardial sensitivity to epinephrine may reduce occurrence of arrhythmia
Cardiac output variable effect, limited decrease at low doses
Respiration minimal effects on clinical doses
o Clinical uses
To calm frightened or apprehensive animals
Training (w/ low doses only)
Pre-anesthetic medication
Anti-emetic
o Administration
Duration up to 6 hrs, more likely 2-3 hrs
Injectable: IV, IM, SC
Oral
o Contraindications & Special Care
Hypotension/hypovolemia
Splenomegaly
Liver failure (impaired metabolism can extend duration)
Breed related: Boxers, Giant breeds, Collies etc.

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Lecture 10 Sedative and Analgesics I Neurotransmitters - Ionotropic ligands vs. metabotropic ligands Effect of Neuroactive Drugs - Tranquillizers, sedatives, hypnotics, narcotics o Narcotics → usually opioids and habit-forming drugs - Antidepressants (not use in anesthesia) Tranquillizers and Sedatives - Tranquilizers o True tranquillizers have a maximal effect: increasing dose beyond this only increases duration and side effects o No drowsiness o Examples: Phenothiazines (Acepromazine), Butyrophenones (Azaperone) - Sedative and Hypnotic Agents o Increasing dose will increase effect until deep sedation/sleep o Marked CNS depression o Drowsiness, but can be aroused by loud noise and pain o Examples: Alpha 2 agonists (Dexmedetomidine), Benzodiazepines o Problem with these drugs is 1) dose dependent, 2) species variation Phenothiazines - Acepromazine most used in vet med. - Labelled for dogs, cats, horses - Injectable, tablets or oral paste (not in USA) - Not controlled by DEA Drugs MOA Indications Overdose Phenothiazines Dopamine antagonists in CNS; Decreased motor activity and - Abnormal movements esp. D2 receptor behavior modification - Tremors - Rigidity (extrapyramidal signs) - Acepromazine o general effects ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ o o o o Steep dose/response curve Calms patient Anti-emetic Mild antihistamine action • Care with intradermal skin testing ▪ Impairs temperature control → hypothermia ▪ Vascular alpha1 receptor blockage → vasodilation ▪ Transient fal ...
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