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Food Safety Final Study Guide

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Lecture 29
Milk quality, safety and pasteurization
Understand basic requirements for milk to enter food supply
Understand pasteurization
What is achieves
What it doesn’t
Know standards for pasteurization
Be familiar with testing protocols for ensuring safety of milk entering food supply
1. Pasteurized milk ordinance (PMO)
a. Document of principles needed for production, processing and delivery of safe and wholesome milk
b. Cooperative effort between FDA, USPHS, state and local authorities and industry representatives
c. Governs all milk purchased by federal government or transported across state lines
d. Guides policy of all states and municipalities
i. However, variation can be adopted
2. Milk quality
a. Concerned about “purity” and “wholesomeness”
i. Purity absence of water or other contaminants
1. Cryoscope Test detect added water via detecting freezing point
2. Adulterants all milk is tested for presence of beta-lactam antibiotic residues, other drugs are screened
for on a random basis
ii. Wholesomeness somatic cell count (SCC), bacterial counts
1. SCC
a. Nucleated cells (WBC’s)
b. Regulatory limit <750,000 cells/ml
c. Somatic cell impacts the flavor
2. Bacterial counts
a. Mastitic organisms growth severely restricted by cooling; most killed by pasteurization
3. Environmental contaminants
a. Psychrotrophic bacteria: Yersinia enterocolytica, Listeria monocytogenes
b. Thermoduric bacteria: Bacillu and Clostridium spp.
4. Ensuring wholesomeness Proper milk cooling (PMO requirement)

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a. ≤ 50ºF within 4 hr of commencement of milking
b. ≤ 45ºF within 2 hr of completing milking
c. Blend temp after 1
st
& subsequent milkings ≤ 50ºF
b. What is milk made of?
i. Milk composition water, fat, protein, lactose, other SNFs
3. Milk pasteurization
a. Agents associated with raw milk
i. M. bovis, Brucella, Coxiella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. Coli, Listeria
b. Role of M. Avium ss. Paratuberculosis is debated
c. Current recommendation: Coxiella burnetii
i. Previous standard was based upon Mycobacterium bovis
ii. Q fever agent later found to be more heat resistant
d. Milk pasteurization options
i. Low Temp Long Time (LTLT) 145F, 30mins
ii. High Temp Short Time 161F, 15 seconds
iii. Ultra-High Temp (sterilized) 275 to 302F, 2 to 5 seconds
e. Myths and facts about milk pasteurization
i. Facts
1. Reduces microbial load, but does not sterilize
2. Minimal negative impact on nutritive value
3. 50x reduction in attributable disease
ii. Myth
1. Pasteurization is only needed because of factory-farm production methods
2. Pasteurization hurts the nutritional value of milk
3. Raw milk is preferable for those with lactose-intolerance
4. Raw milk and RB-51
a. RB-51 resistant to rifampin
b. Legalities of selling raw milk
i. Interstate sale is illegal
ii. Intrastate varies depending upon state
iii. Oklahoma
1. Only Grade A pasteurized milk shall be sold through restaurants, soda fountains, grocery stores, or
similar establishments, including school lunchrooms”

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Lecture 29 Milk quality, safety and pasteurization ❖ Understand basic requirements for milk to enter food supply ❖ Understand pasteurization ➢ What is achieves ➢ What it doesn’t ❖ Know standards for pasteurization ❖ Be familiar with testing protocols for ensuring safety of milk entering food supply 1. Pasteurized milk ordinance (PMO) a. Document of principles needed for production, processing and delivery of safe and wholesome milk b. Cooperative effort between FDA, USPHS, state and local authorities and industry representatives c. Governs all milk purchased by federal government or transported across state lines d. Guides policy of all states and municipalities i. However, variation can be adopted 2. Milk quality a. Concerned about “purity” and “wholesomeness” i. Purity → absence of water or other contaminants 1. Cryoscope Test → detect added water via detecting freezing point 2. Adulterants → all milk is tested for presence of beta-lactam antibiotic residues, other drugs are screened for on a random basis ii. Wholesomeness → somatic cell count (SCC), bacterial counts 1. SCC a. Nucleated cells (WBC’s) b. Regulatory limit <750,000 cells/ml c. Somatic cell impacts the flavor 2. Bacterial counts a. Mastitic organisms → growth severely restricted by cooling; most killed by pasteurization 3. Environmental contaminants a. Psychrotrophic bacteria: Yersinia enterocolytica, Listeria monocytogenes b. Thermoduric bacteria: Bacillu and Clostridium spp. ...
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