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Moral Skepticism Study Questions

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Study Questions for Chapter 2: Moral Skepticism
1. Moral skepticism is the view that There is no important sense in which morality is, just
a matter of opinion
2. Cultural relativism involves five related claims. These are #1 Different cultures have
different moral codes #2 these codes determine what is right within a given society #3
there is no object standard that can be used to judge ones society’s code as better than
another’s #4the moral code of our own society has no special status #5it is arrogant to
judge conduct of other societies
3. According to the cultural relativist the right thing for someone to do is. . . To do what is
considered right within their culture not other society’s
4. Cultural relativists claim that what is right in one culture is not necessarily right in
another. The usual argument for this is Different cultures have different moral beliefs.
Therefore, what is right in one culture is not necessarily right in another
5. Presented as an argument (with two premises and a conclusion), the objection to cultural
relativism isIf cultural relativism is true, then the members of a given culture cannot
do something wrong unless their behavior conflicts with the moral beliefs of their culture.
Therefore, cultural relativism is false.
6. According to personal relativism what makes it right for someone to do something is
there is no right or wrong, just what you believe
7. Personal relativists claim that what is right for one person is not necessarily right for
another. The argument for this isDifferent people have different beliefs, therefore what
is right for one person is not necessarily right for another.
8. According to moral subjectivism, moral statements describe people’s attitudes of
approval and disapproval
9. For the moral subjectivist, the statement “Abortion is wrong” can be translated as… I
disapprove of abortion”
10. Both personal relativism and moral subjectivism connect morality to people’s subjective
states. But whereas personal relativism is a theory about moral subjectivism is a
theory about Relativism is a theory about the nature of moral standards, whereas
subjectivism is a theory about the meaning of moral language.
11. Presented as an argument (with two premises and a conclusion), the objection to personal
relativism isIf personal relativism is true than people cannot do something wrong
unless their behavior conflicts with their personal moral beliefs. Therefore, personal
relativism is false.
12. Presented as an argument (with two premises and a conclusion), the objection to moral
subjectivism isIf subjectivism is true, then people can know whether an action is right
or wrong simply by examining their feelings. Therefore, subjectivism is false.
13. Cultural relativists, personal relativists, and moral subjectivists maintain that there are
moral facts, but that they are not objective in nature. True
14. Moral nihilism is that view thatMorality is concerned with values, not with facts.
15. One way of defending moral nihilism is to draw a sharp line between facts and values

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