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Evolution Final Review Questions

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Final Review 6/10/2014 9:33:00 PM
Evolution: a change in the genome of a population of organisms over generations
Mechanisms
o Natural selection 3 tenets
Variability in a trait across a population
Heritability of the trait
Differential reproductive success
o Sexual selection same 3 tenets but sexual selection operates on traits that
increase the likelihood of reproducing as opposed to surviving
Intrasexual selection: competition between members of the same sex
for access to mates
Intersexual selection: choosing a mate
o Gene flow the passive movement of genetic material from one population
to another, e.g. gene flow from the old world to the new world
o Mutation
Typically occur as an error in DNA replication
Vast majority are unsuccessful
o Founder’s effect – occurs as a result of genetic separation/isolation of
populations
Physically and culturally separated from other gene pools, something
that was overrepresented in the original gene pool may become
common)
Speciation
o Biological species concept: a group of reproductively isolated (through
behavior and habitat) organisms that produce reproductively viable offspring
Behavior two animals that hate each other are very unlikely to
create a hybrid (wolves and coyotes), zebra-horse hybrid, humanzee
Habitat formation of new environments; craters, rivers, mountain
ranges, etc.
Ngorongoro crater, Tanzania lions have developed a short
spiky mane
Great apes chimps and bonobos in sub-Saharan Africa the
Zaire river likely became impassable, physically separating two
populations of chimps that turned into two species
o Processes of speciation

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Allopatric: you have an original population and some barrier
separates it into two populations, go in their separate evolutionary
directions, become so distinct that they won’t breed
Reproductive isolation
Parapatric: one segment of a population enters a new niche (e.g.
becomes nocturnal), niche now separates them and they only breed
with each other
Sympatric: some polymorphism or change in phenotype shows up in a
population (outlier, mutation in hair color, speed, etc.), within that
subset of the population they find they have an advantage and
reproduce with each other eventually becoming overrepresented
One part of the population is still selecting for the old trait, the
other part is selecting for the new trait
o Niche the relative position of a population within a particular ecosystem
Reproductive isolation through behavior and habitat are the
foundation of niche separation; populations become somewhat
independent of each other
Variations allow for there to be so many different species in an area,
exploiting resources, location, etc.
o Adaptive radiation the evolution of a single ancestral species into a
diversity of species that each occupy a unique niche in an ecosystem
o Island biogeography the study of how species evolve in restricted, isolated
habitats
Islands are associated with intense selection pressures due to
restricted ecosystem and limited gene pool
o The cognitive niche the evolution of a species’ niche includes its cognition
Diet, activity time, sociality, mode of locomotion, social cognition
o Human speciation occurred over a short window
Radical diet change, cooking, changes to teeth, gut, brain
Ethological Analysis
Function utility, impact on survival
Phylogeny other species demonstrating the behavior and genetic relationships to
those species
o Derived vs. shared ancestry
Mechanism processes underlying execution of the behavior
Ontogeny development of the behavior

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Final Review 6/10/2014 9:33:00 PM Evolution: a change in the genome of a population of organisms over generations • Mechanisms o Natural selection – 3 tenets ▪ Variability in a trait across a population ▪ Heritability of the trait ▪ Differential reproductive success o Sexual selection – same 3 tenets but sexual selection operates on traits that increase the likelihood of reproducing as opposed to surviving ▪ Intrasexual selection: competition between members of the same sex for access to mates ▪ Intersexual selection: choosing a mate o Gene flow – the passive movement of genetic material from one population to another, e.g. gene flow from the old world to the new world o Mutation ▪ Typically occur as an error in DNA replication ▪ Vast majority are unsuccessful o Founder’s effect – occurs as a result of genetic separation/isolation of populations ▪ Physically and culturally separated from other gene pools, something that was overrepresented in the original gene pool may become common) • Speciation o Biological species concept: a group of reproductively isolated (through behavior and habitat) organisms that produce reproductively viable offspring ▪ Behavior – two animals that hate each other are very unlikely to create a hybrid (wolves and coyotes), zebra-horse hybrid, humanzee ▪ Habitat – formation of new environments; craters, rivers, mountain ranges, etc.   Ngorongoro crater, Tanzania – lions have developed a short spiky ma ...
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