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The 5 Generations of Computer

Subject

Computer Science

Type

Study Guide

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FIVE GENERATIONS OF
COMPUTER
1_ The Vacuum Tubes
2_Transistors
3_ Integrated Circuits
4_ Microprocessors
5_ Artificial Intelligence

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The 1
st
Generation (1940-1956) “The Vacuum Tubes:
The 1
st
Computer, which is created, used vacuum tubes as
circuitry and the magnetic drumsas memory, and was often large
computer which is equal to the size of an entire room. This
computer was very difficult to use and uses a large amount of
electricity by which a lot of heat is generated, which causes the
chances of errors. This type of computer depends on machine
language, the low level programming language which is understood
by computer, to perform operation, and they could solve 1 problem
at one time only. The given data was based on “punched card” and
paper tapes”, and information received was taken as hardcopy.
UNIVAC and ENIAC computer are example of this type of
computers.
The 2
nd
Generation (1956-1963) Transistors:
This type of computer uses transistors and replaced the first
generation of computer. This type of computer was created in
1947 but, until the late 1950s”, did not see wide-spread use in
computers. This type was very superior to the first generation,
which allows the computer to become smaller in size, faster in
processing, cheaper in cost, less consuming energy and more
reliable. But this type of computer generated a great amount of heat
that damage the computer, it was an improvement over the first
generation of computer. The 2
nd
generation computer still depends
on punched cards as input and “hardcopy” as output. 2
nd
generation of computers moved from “Cryptic binary machine
language to symbolic, or assembly languages, which allow the

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users to specify instructions in words. The High-level programming
languages were also being developed at this stage, such as early
versions of COBOL and FORTRAN”. This is also the first
computer that stored its instruction in its memory to magnetic core
technology instead of magnetic drums. The first computers of this
type were developed for the industry of atomic energy”.
The 3
rd
Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits:
The 3
rd
generation computer uses the integrated circuits. The
transistors were small and be placed on the “silicon chip”, which is
called semi-conductor, which furiously increased the speed and
efficiency of computer. The 3
rd
generation computers uses
keyboards to give input and monitors to display output and
interfaced with an operating system”, which allow the devices to
execute many programs at one time with central program that look
after the memory. This type of computers, for the 1
st
time became,
accessible to large users because they were smaller in size and
cheaper in cost than the first generations of computers.
The 4
th
Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors:
When thousand of integrated circuits are implemented on a single
silicon chip, is called microprocessor, which brings the 4
th
generation of computer. Now the first generation of computer of a
size of a room can fit into a palm of hand. Intel 4004 chip, created
in 1971, located all the component of the computer from the CPU
and memory to I/O controls on a single chip. In 1981 IBM

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Anonymous
I was having a hard time with this subject, and this was a great help.

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