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Assignment 1 Energy Drinks and Their Safety

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Assignment 1: Energy Drinks and Their Safety
Assignment 1 Energy Drinks and Their Safety
Abstract
Many people use energy drinks in order to receive boosts of energy for
many different reasons. The influxes of new but similar products on the
market, along with lively promotional campaigns geared towards young
active adults, have drastically increased the consumption of energy
drinks in the past decade. The objective of this study is to examine the
relation between the consumption of energy drinks and individuals
emotional well-being. The predictions are that individuals who consume
energy beverages on a daily and weekly basis will rate their emotional
well-being as higher than those people who have energy drinks on a
monthly and yearly basis or never have energy beverages whatsoever.
Previous research suggests that the use of energy drinks increases
people’s temporary cognitive performance as well as different aspects of
their well-being, but the true correlation of the amount consumed and
emotional well-being has widely differed and has not been completely
determined. This study was conducted by surveying 52 individuals who
responded to an array of questions such as when they consume the
drinks and how they feel overall. The results indicate that people who
have energy drinks on a frequent basis rate their emotional well-being
slightly lower than those people who use rarely or never.
Litterature Review
There have been several previous studies that have focused on the
effects that energy drinks have on a person’s emotional well-being as
well as other aspects of life. A 2012 literature review study by Ishak et al.
examined different works that have been previously published in order to
determine the overall findings. 41 studies were identified through
Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO databases from the dates of 1990 to
2011, using the keywords “energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects,
caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being,
and mental illness.” The authors hypothesized that overall use of energy
drinks contribute to increased quality of life as well as well-being.

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Assignment 1: Energy Drinks and Their Safety
Most of the studies about energy drinks examine the physiological
effects of energy drinks, focusing on the body’s response to the
products. This article is a review and compiles many different studies
with an objective of examining the psychological effects of energy drinks
on cognitive functions, mood, sleep, decision making, and overall impact
on well-being and quality of life. This is an important issue because the
long term effects on the brain are unknown and only the short term
effects have been thoroughly studied. Sünram-Lea et al. hypothesized
that energy drinks can elevate mood states in acute stress situations.
They focused on an experiment that administered energy drinks and
placebos during fire-fighting training. Those who consumed a beverage
containing glucose and caffeine experienced reduced anxiety and
elevated mood following the stressor of fire-fighting training.
The authors of The effects of red bull energy drink on human
performance and mood looked at cognitive function and how it is
affected by the use of energy drinks. Alford et al. hypothesized that acute
cognitive function would improve after the consumption of energy
stimulants. A study examining concentration and memory showed that
the 36 volunteers improved on the tests after consuming Red Bull. A
limitation of this study is that it does not address the question of how
each individual component in the energy drink effects users over a an
extended time of use.
Further studies have focused on the connection between energy drink
users and their reported emotional well-being and quality of life. Suzuki
et al. looked at different situations when people use the drinks, and
found that many individuals reported using in combination with alcohol
beverages to increase alertness and mood. Some countries like Japan
use energy drinks as part of alternative medical treatment, and based on
limited research, some cultures even use energy drinks as a main
source of increasing their overall quality of life.
The overall conclusions of the literary review of these studies were that
energy drinks do indeed increase temporary cognitive ability while
elevating mood as well as promote wakefulness and alertness. The
research on long term effects is not substantial enough to make any
claims about long term effects on mood and cognitive ability. Contrary to
the authors expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life
and well-being was equivocal, and requires further research, perhaps

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Assignment 1: Energy Drinks and Their Safety
examining the specific different components in the drinks, as well as
when people use them.
Researchers in a study titled A taurine and caffeine-containing drink
stimulates cognitive performance and well-being measured the effects of
caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone on people’s cognitive functioning
and well-being. Predictions by Seidl et al. were that individuals who
consume the three compounds will experience elevated mood and
greater cognitive ability that those who did not have the mixture. The
study was conducted using two groups, one containing five individuals
who got the three mixture compound, and the other containing five
people who served as the control group who received placebos. The
groups had caffeine users and non-caffeine users in order to rule out
caffeine withdrawal. Each group was tested at night time when the
participants were feeling less energized and closer to becoming sleepy.
Data that was collected shows that people who used the energy drink
supplements displayed a higher cognitive functioning and displayed a
more elevated mood than those in the placebo group. Individuals who
use energy supplements, specifically energy beverages, experience
short term benefits, even when the they are tired. Measurements were
taken based on the single dose of energy supplements, and there is no
data in this study about the effects of long term repeat use.
A study review by James and Rogers focused on withdrawal reversal as
being the most plausible explanation for elevated mood and cognitive
functioning in caffeine users. The study gathered information from
previous research where participants reported short term benefits from
using caffeine, as well as whether the they were regular caffeine users
or not. The researchers had predicted that caffeine withdrawal would be
the reason that participants reported elevated well-being and mood after
having a caffeine dosage. The results that were gathered from numerous
studies proved their hypothesis to be true. The analyzed studies
reported that users felt better after taking caffeine; however that was
partially due to the user experiencing caffeine withdrawal and needing
the dose in order to return to their “normal” level of functioning. This
theory is similar to the nicotine-regulation model, where people who
smoke cigarettes will continue to smoke in order to maintain the levels of
nicotine preventing withdrawal. After reoccurring ingestion of foreign
substances and chemicals, the body builds up a tolerance for the
substance and begins to require more of it. This could occur to
individuals who consume energy drinks on a regular basis, who report

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