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Attention Characteristics & Theories Presentation

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Attention 2 Chapter 3 Characteristics of Attention  Focalization ◼ Selectivity ◼ Paying attention to some aspects in environment, but not others  Concentration ◼ Mental effort ◼ Amount of mental capacity required to perform a task Theories of Attention  Selectivity  Mental effort Theories of Attention  Selectivity ◼ Bottle-neck theories ◼ Stage that cannot process all the information Bottleneck Theories Early vs. Late Selection Bottle-neck Theories  Controversy ◼ Many experiments with selective (dichotic) listening ◼ No agreement on where the bottle-neck occurred ◼ Led to refinements of the bottle-neck theories Capacity Theories     More flexible Mental effort is required How effort is allocated is important Emphasized the capacity demands of different tasks Capacity Theories  According to capacity theory, we not only have a filter that manages sensory input from multiple channels, but we also have limited attention capacity Capacity Theories  Capacity Model of Attnetion (Kahneman, 1973) ◼ Assumption (like bottle-neck theories): simultaneous activities are likely to interfere with each other ◼ Interference occurs when the demands exceed available capacity ◼ Demands are non-specific, depending only on mental effort Capacity Theories  Allocation (dividing) of capacity ◼ When limited amount of capacity is distributed to various tasks  Arousal – receptiveness of brain ◼ Physiological sta ...
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