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Ch 34 Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Presentation

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Slide 1 Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Chapter 34 Slide 2 Chemotherapeutic agents • Definition: • Chemical agents used to treat disease • Destroy pathogenic microbes or inhibit their growth within host • Most are antibiotics • Microbial products that kill susceptible microbes or inhibit their growth Slide 3 General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugs Selective toxicity • Ability of drug to kill or inhibit pathogen while damaging host as little as possible • Expressed in terms of: • Therapeutic dose (amount) • Drug level required for clinical treatment • Toxic dose • Drug level at which drug becomes too toxic for patient and produces side effects • Therapeutic index • Ratio of toxic dose over the therapeutic dose Slide 4 General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugs • Side effects • Undesirable effects of drugs on host cells • Narrow-spectrum drugs • Attack only a few different pathogens, targeted • Broad-spectrum drugs • Attack many different pathogens • -Bacteriocidal agent • Kills microbes • -Bacteriostatic agent • Inhibits growth of microbes Slide 5 Slide 6 Antibiotic Production • Bacteria and fungi are able to naturally produce many commonly used antibiotics • However, many important chemotherapeutic agents are synthetic • Semisynthetic antibiotics are natural antibiotics that have been chemically modified to make them less susceptible to pathogen inactivation • e.g., ampicillin and amoxycillin ...
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