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Biotechnology Midterm Study Guide

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Midterm II Study Guide
1. What is the purpose of PCR?
It is a technique used to take a piece of DNA and make many copies of it.
2. What does PCR stand for?
Polymerase chain reaction
3. What are the required components of PCR? What are each of those components used for?
Denaturing when the double-stranded template DNA is heated to separate it into two
single strands. Annealing when the temperature is lowered to enable the DNA primers to
attach to the template DNA. Extending when the temperature is raised and the new
strand of DNA is made by the Taq polymerase enzyme.
4. What are the steps involved in each PCR cycle? What is occuring at each step?
5. The DNA template to be copied, primers, short stretches of DNA that initiate the PCR
reaction, DNA nucleotide bases? (also known as dNTPs), Taq polymerase enzyme? to add in
the new DNA bases, buffer to ensure the right conditions for the reaction.
6. Be able to determine how many copies of DNA are present from one DNA strand after a given
number of cycles of PCR
7. What are antigens?
A foreign substance in the body
8. What are antibodies?
Produced by the body to fight antigens
9. What is the structure of an antibody?
10. Why do we say that antibodies are highly specific?
Each antibody has a unique binding site shape which locks
onto the specific shape of the antigen.
11. What is the difference between monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies? How are they created?
Polyclonal antibodies are made using several
different immune cells. They will have affinity
for the same antigen but different epitopes. ...
Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibody
Binding.Monoclonal antibodies bind only a
single epitope while polyclonal antibodies bind
different epitopes on the same protein.
12. How are antibodies named?
The suffix "-mab" is used for monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments and radiolabeled
antibodies. For polyclonal mixtures of antibodies, "-pab" is used. The -pab suffix applies to

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polyclonal pools of recombinant monoclonal antibodies, as opposed to polyclonal antibody
preparations isolated from blood.
13. How do we detect the presence of antibodies?
To detect antibodies to viruses, viral protein is linked to the
plastic support, and then the clinical specimen is added. If
antibodies against the virus are present in the specimen, they
will bind to the immobilized antigen.
14. What is ELISA? Why is it used?
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, also called ELISA or
EIA, is a test that detects and measures antibodies in your
blood. This test can be used to determine if you have
antibodies related to certain infectious conditions.
Types of ELISA
Direct, indirect, competitive, and sandwich
15. What are the inputs and outputs of fermentation? Why is
fermentation important?
Fermentation is crucial for energy production when
oxygen is limited
What is a redox reaction?
An oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction is a type of
chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons
between two species. Reduction means gaining
16. What is the purpose of photosynthesis? What are the two
different parts of photosynthesis?
The process of photosynthesis is divided into two main parts.
The first part is called the light dependent reaction. This
reaction happens when the light energy is captured and
pushed into a chemical called ATP. The second part of the
process happens when theATP is used to make glucose (the
Calvin Cycle).
17. How do chloroplasts capture light energy?
Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide gas to
produce food for the plant.
18. What wavelengths of light are most important for photosynthesis?

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Midterm II Study Guide 1. What is the purpose of PCR? It is a technique used to take a piece of DNA and make many copies of it. 2. What does PCR stand for? Polymerase chain reaction 3. What are the required components of PCR? What are each of those components used for? Denaturing – when the double-stranded template DNA is heated to separate it into two single strands. Annealing – when the temperature is lowered to enable the DNA primers to attach to the template DNA. Extending – when the temperature is raised and the new strand of DNA is made by the Taq polymerase enzyme. 4. What are the steps involved in each PCR cycle? What is occuring at each step? 5. The DNA template to be copied, primers, short stretches of DNA that initiate the PCR reaction, DNA nucleotide bases? (also known as dNTPs), Taq polymerase enzyme? to add in the new DNA bases, buffer to ensure the right conditions f ...
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