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Human Sexuality in a Changing World Exam Review

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Exam 1 Review
Human Sexuality in a Changing World, 10th edition Rathus et al.
CHAPTER 1: What Is Human Sexuality?
Definitions of..
“Human sexuality”: Ways in which people experience and express themselves as sexual
beings
: Hedonism: Pursuit of pleasure
:Relativism: No objective way of justifying a particular set of values. Values vary widely from
culture to culture.
:Legalism: Dependence on moral law rather than on personal religious faith.
:Asceticism: Devoid oneself from sexual pleasure to focus on spiritual pursuits.
:Utilitarianism: Moral conduct brings about the greatest good for the greatest number
:Rationalism: Sexual desires should be based on intellect and reason, not blind obedience
Kama sutra: Hindu sex manual
Photoplethysmograph: Tampon like probe inserted into vagina. Measures vasocongestion
by light reflected off vaginal walls. Provides objective measure of sexual arousal
:Strain gauge: Measures sexual arousal in terms of penis circumference
Participant observation: A method in which observers interact with the people they study
as they collect data.
Behaviorism: Arguments that to understand behavior, we must only rely on measurable
observable behavior.
Anthropology: Study of human cultures and societies and their development
Random sampling: Every member of a particular population has an equal chance of
participating
Independent variable: Can be altered
Dependent variable: Dependent on changes from the independent variable
Volunteer bias: A slanting of research data that is caused by the characteristics of
individuals who volunteer to participate, such as willingness to discuss intimate behavior.
Be able to recognize the independent variable and dependent variable in the
description of an experiment.
Example: it’s obvious..
Be familiar with the cross-cultural variations of the islands discussed on pages 2-3,
and the Hopi and Trobrianders on page 17.
Inis Beag-Not normal for women to have sexual pleasure. Orgasm seen as deviant. No
premarital sex. Having sex purely for procreation.
Mangaia-Pacfic; Sexual activity encouraged among young people. Virginity looked down
upon.
Attitudes towards masturbation
Hopi Native Americans ignore it.
Trobrianders encourage it.
Understand the basic idea behind each of the perspectives on human sexuality:
Historical: The historical perspective suggests that there are few universal sexual trends.
Ancient Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans dwelled in male-oriented societies that viewed
women as property. Repressive Victorian sexual attitudes gave way to the sexual revolution
of the 1960s and 1970s.

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Biological/evolutionary: The biological perspective focuses on biological sexual processes
such as genetic, hormonal, and neural factors. Evolutionary theory has been active in
studying
the areas of mate selection and aggressionincluding sexual aggression. The evolutionary
perspective suggests that social behaviors that enhance reproductive success may be
subject to natural selection.
Cross-species: Studying the behavior of other species may suggest that certain kinds of
behaviors are “natural” in that other species do not plan and evaluate sexual behavior in the
way that humans do.
Psychological (including psychoanalytic and social cognitive): Psychological
perspectives focus on the processes of perception, learning, motivation, emotion, and
personality that affect gender-related and sexual behavior. The theory of psychoanalysis
proposes that biologically based sex drives come into conflict with social codes. Learning
theories focus on factors such as rewards, punishments, and observational learning.
Sociological: The sociological perspective studies the ways in which group membership
influence human sexuality.
Feminist: Feminist theory challenges traditional views of men as breadwinners and women
as homemakers; of men as political policymakers, especially because those policies affect
women and children; of men as sexual “aggressors” and women as sexual “gatekeepers”;
and traditional gender roles that view men as objective and rational, and women as
emotional and irrational.
Queer theories: Queer theory challenges heteronormativitythe viewpoint that
heterosexuality is normal. According to queer theory, heterosexuality and homosexuality are
social constructs that ignore commonly experienced mismatches among people’s anatomic
sex, society’s gender roles, and individuals’ sexual desires.
Understand the basic historical perspectives of early…
Christianity (pages 11-12): Views shaped by St. Paul. Adultery rampant among upper
classes of rome. Christian leaders associated sexuality with sin.
Islam (12): Pre-marital sex and adultry shamed and punshible by stoning. Men may have
more than 4 wifes.
Hindu India (13): Kama sutra; sex as a regligious duty.
Research methods of Kinsey, and Masters and Johnson:
Kinsey did survey and face to face interviews
Masters and Johnson did lab observation
How did Kinsey assure honesty in his subjects and cross-check their answers?
He assured honesty by requesting many participants months later.
Understand how correlation does NOT imply causation (cause and effect). If two
variables are correlated, can a third variable be involved in causing that correlation to
appear? Idk it’s obvious
CHAPTER 2: Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology
1. Which glands (in the brain) regulate the menstrual cycle?
Hypothalamus
Pea-sized structure

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Exam 1 Review Human Sexuality in a Changing World, 10th edition Rathus et al. CHAPTER 1: What Is Human Sexuality? Definitions of.. “Human sexuality”: Ways in which people experience and express themselves as sexual beings : Hedonism: Pursuit of pleasure :Relativism: No objective way of justifying a particular set of values. Values vary widely from culture to culture. :Legalism: Dependence on moral law rather than on personal religious faith. :Asceticism: Devoid oneself from sexual pleasure to focus on spiritual pursuits. :Utilitarianism: Moral conduct brings about the greatest good for the greatest number :Rationalism: Sexual desires should be based on intellect and reason, not blind obedience Kama sutra: Hindu sex manual Photoplethysmograph: Tampon like probe inserted into vagina. Measures vasocongestion by light reflected off vaginal walls. Provides objective measure of sexual arousal :Strain gauge: Measures sexual arousal in terms of penis circumference Participant observation: A method in which observers interact with the people they study as they collect data. Behaviorism: Arguments that to understand behavior, we must only rely on measurable observable behavior. Anthropology: Study of human cultures and societies and their development Random sampling: Every member of a particular population has an equal chance of participating Independent variable: Can be altered Dependent variable: Dependent on changes from the independent variable Volunteer bias: A slanting of re ...
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