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Pakistan & The US Relations Paper

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Political Science
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Pak-US Relations
Outline:
1) Introduction
2) A Brief History of PAK-US Relations
3) Afghan-Russian war and Pakistan role
4) PAK-US relations after 9/11 incident
5) Pakistan war on Terror and the US-Aid
6) AFPAK policy and PAK-US Relations
7) The South Asian “Trilemma” for U.S. Strategy
8) INDIA-US Nuclear Deal and Pakistan Concerns
9) Financial Action Task Force (FATF) grey list
10) US-Afghan Taliban Dialogue and Pakistan role
11) The Future of PAK-US Relations
12) Conclusion
Pak-US Relations
Introduction:
The Pakistan-U.S. relationship dates back to the birth of Pakistan. In the first high-level exchange
between the two countries, President Harry Truman sent a congratulatory message to Quaid-e-Azam
Mohammad Ali Jinnah on Pakistan’s “emergence among the family of nations.” Formal diplomatic
relations were established on August 15, 1947. In the 70 years since that historic day, Pakistan and the
United States have built a multifaceted and broad-based relationship, driven by cooperation in areas
ranging from education to energy and from defense to trade and investment. This cooperation is
rooted in shared values and convergence of interest on regional and strategic issues.
A Brief History:
Since Pakistan’s independence in 1947, it has had a mixed relationship with the United States,
encompassing several ups and downs over the decades. Pakistan came into being as a sovereign state,
like many former colonial territories, during the early Cold War. The U.S. Cold War grand strategy of
containment of communism and Soviet influence shaped its early interactions with Pakistan. It is
conceivable the U.S.-Pakistan relationship will continue to deteriorate, but the question then is whether
it would result in a hard or soft landing. For its part, Pakistan was eager to ally itself with the leading
superpower as a means to boost its defense capabilities. In exchange of military aid, advanced
technology, and an informal security umbrella, Pakistan gave the United States access to bases, shared

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intelligence, and was formally in the anti-Soviet bloc as a member of both the Central Treaty
Organization (CENTO) and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).Due to concerns about the Soviet
influence on India and efforts to normalize relations with China, the United States backed Pakistan in its
conflicts with India, even providing material and moral support to Pakistan during the 1971 India-
Pakistan War that led to the independence of Bangladesh.
Afghan-Russian war and Pakistan role
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, in late December 1979 by troops from the Union. The Soviet Union
intervened in support of the Afghan communist government in its conflict with anti-communist Muslim
guerrillas during the Afghan War (197892) and remained in Afghanistan until mid-February 1989. At
the end of the decade, when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan, the United States and Pakistan
collaborated closely to push them back. Their covert strategy was to encourage a ‘jihad’ against the
Soviets and to arm and train militants the mujahedeen to liberate Afghanistan. While this approach
was successful in defeating the Soviets, it did not prepare Afghanistan for the civil war and chaos that
would follow, as some elements of the U.S. - and Pakistan backed mujahedeen’s morphed into the
Taliban, who took over and imposed harsh, regressive laws. During the 1980s, Pakistan also made
significant strides towards developing nuclear weapons capabilities. Research suggests that the United
States was fully aware of the program’s developments but unwilling to sanction Pakistan for its nuclear
program due to the prioritization of containing communism and cooperating in Afghanistan. As the Cold
War ended, however, the U.S. incentives to ignore growing evidence of Pakistani nuclearization
declined, causing a significant downturn in relations. The United States invoked a piece of legislation
known as the Pressler Amendment in 1990 to sanction Pakistan and further sanctioned it under the
Glenn and Symington Amendments in 1998 after it conducted nuclear tests. These punitive
measures dealt a significant blow to Pakistan’s economy and fostered public distrust, and even hostility,
towards the United States. The United States will continue to take interest in Pakistan’s stability, and the
two countries will still have to cooperate on certain issues such as counterterrorism, nonproliferation,
and the security and reconstruction of Afghanistan.
PAK-US relations after 9/11 incident
Following the devastating terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, an opportunity for rapprochement
between the United States and Pakistan emerged. The United States