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Assignment 1 LASA 2 Conduct a Threat Assessment on Public Transportation




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Assignment 1 LASA 2 Cultural
Psychological Effects of Violence on children from
The purpose of the study was to establish baseline data on the
situation of violence
against children in Basic Education in Nigeria. Specifically,
the objectives of the study
were to determine the prevalence of the various types of
violence against children at the
basic education level in Nigeria; identify the influence of
violence on school attendance
and find out the existing strategies in schools for the
prevention and management of
The study was conducted in 4 states of the country. Two states
each were selected from
the northern and southern parts of Nigeria. Specifically, Ondo
and Abia states were
selected from the south, while Sokoto and Taraba states were
selected from the north.
The state selection was by random sampling technique. Three
LGAs were selected from
each state – one from each senatorial district. A total of 386
learners, 93 teachers and 24
head teachers from 48 schools participated in the study.
Types and Prevalence of Violence in Schools

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The findings revealed that the existing types of violence in
schools are physical,
psychological, sexual, gender and health based violence.
However physical violence
(85%) and psychological violence (50%) accounted for the
bulk of violence against
children in schools. Other types of violence reported among
learners in basic education
level in Nigeria included gender –based violence (5%), sexual
violence (4%) and healthrelated
violence (1%).
Across region, physical violence was more prevalent in the
rural (90%) than urban areas
(80%). A comparison of the prevalence of violence in the
Northern and the Southern
part of the country reveal that all forms of violence are more
in the south than in the
north except for sexual violence. Physical violence is higher
in the south (90%) compared
to the north (79%). Psychological violence is also more
prevalent in the south (61%) than
in the north (38.7%). In the north, health-related violence was
not reported, but in the
south about 2% of learners reported health-related violence.
Sexual violence was
however more prevalent in the north (4.7%) than in the south
(3.2%). Across gender;
physical and psychological violence are almost evenly
distributed among males and
females in basic education in Nigeria.
The study further reveal that physical violence are perpetrated
more by senior students

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(4.9%) and classmates (4.7%); while the school teachers were
reported as mostly the
perpetrators of psychological violence (26.4%).
The implication of violence on school absenteeism is
emergent in Nigeria. For instance
about 6% of learners were absent from school because of
physical violence. Further
analysis showed that more girls (7%) than boys (5%) were
absent from schools due to
physical violence, and school absenteeism is more in the south
(9%) than in north (3%).
Similarly, absenteeism from schools due to physical violence
is more likely among
learners in JSS (9%) than those in primary schools (3%).
However, similar rates were
reported in both urban and rural areas. Psychological violence
is more prevalent as a
cause of school absenteeism in urban areas (7%) and among
learners in JSS (6%).
Reporting of Violence in Schools
Reporting of act of violence among learners was generally
low, ranging from 4% for
sexual violence to 40% in the case of physical violence.
Reporting violence among
learners is generally low, ranging from 4% for sexual violence
to 40% in the case of
physical violence. Most learners will report cases of physical
violence to school teachers
(45.1%) and also the head teacher (34.5%). Some of the major
reasons why learners will
not report cases of violence especially for physical and gender
based violence were
because they felt nothing will be done.

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Really great stuff, couldn't ask for more.