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English 102 Exercise

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English
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MCCKC
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A: General Backgrounds
1. In the simplest way possible in one sentence, define communication. (2 pts.)
The transfer of information from one person to another.
2. List and succinctly describe the three forms or modes of communication. (9 pts.)
Verbal communication-it entails the use of words, either face-to-face or remotely.
Nonverbal communication-nonverbal cues such as facial expressions and gestures give insight into a speaker’s word choice.
Visual communication-involves the use of maps, signs, drawings or other visuals to pass information.
3. Define rhetoric. (2 pts.)
The art of speaking effectively to persuade or impress the listeners.
4. List the seven rhetorical modes. (7 pts.)
Narrative
Definition
Cause and effect
Illustration
Comparison and contrast
Description
classification
5. List the three rules of rational discourse and succinctly explain their importance. (6 pts.)
a) The law of identity- it states that a thing is the same as it is. It tells us that something is inseparable from itself.
b) The law of non-contradiction- it states that contradictory statements cannot be bot true at the same time. It is important when we have to
distinguish between two opposing sides.
c) The law of the exclusion of the middle- every statement is either true or it is not. Helps us establish the grounds for judging specific
propositions.
6. Define Standard English. What three elements does a proper sentence require? (4 pts.)
Standard English is the type of English suitable for every spoken or written communication. A proper sentence has tree elements: a subject, a
verb, and an object
B: Identifying Foundational Concepts Truth, Evidence, & Argument

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1. Define “truth” in its formal sense, tell how this differs from “ordinary language,” explain its relation to
belief and knowledge, and describe the three categories of belief regarding the ultimate source of truth
noting which is the standard in formal academic work. 20 pts.
Truth is the property of being in agreement with reality or facts. Truth differs from ordinary language in that truth can be proven while ordinary
language doesn’t have to align to facts. Truth is related to belief and knowledge in that people tend to believe the things they know to be true.
There are three categories of belief:
a) Correspondence- this is the standard I formal academic work. It holds that the truth of a belief is determined by how it relates to the
facts.
b) Coherence- a belief is true if it aligns with other beliefs.
c) Pragmatic- a belief is true based on how useful it is in the real world.
2. What is the subjective/objective problem and how does it relate to essay writing? (Succinctly discuss
landscape and inscape and invention in essay writing related to a writer’s ethical obligation.)
10 pts.
Subjective problems relate to a writer’s opinions and feelings. On the other hand, objective problems deal with the known facts. An essay writer
has to use both objective and subjective statements. In essay writing, a writer applies the concepts of landscape, inscape and invention. Invention
is the formation of a new idea which begins in the mind. Inscaping entails inner expression of ideas where a writer uses words to represent a
deeper meaning. Landscaping entails clear expression of ideas in a way that can be clearly understood by all. Inscaping and landscaping are some
of the tools used by poets to express their messages in a way that will resonate with the people while at the same time
expressing their feelings, desires and emotions.
3. Succinctly describe Michael Shermer’s use of the terms agenticity and patternicity. With brief examples, do you
agree or disagree? 5 pts.
Shermer uses agenticity to imply the belief that certain invisible and intentional agents control the world. An example is the belief that some rock
music is inspired by satanic messages. On the other hand, patternicity means the tendency to find some patterns in meaningless sounds. For
instance someone may see the image of Virgin Mary on a sandwich when it doesn’t really exist. I agree with Shermer that we tend to see things
based on our situations and associate them with our beliefs. That is why a religious person is more likely to see the image of Virgin Mary on a
sandwich.
C: Foundational Concepts/Definitions
1. Academic argument depends on Legitimate Propositions. Why? Define the concept. 9 pts.
Academic argument relies on legitimate propositions. This is because a proposition can either be true or
false. A writer must use logic, apply reason, and use evidence to prove the legitimacy of a point. For
instance, in debates, a proposer must show that their proposition is legitimate by applying logic and critical
thinking.
Succinctly define the following terms in the best brief way; 1 point each.
2. Frontloading:
Providing the most important details first followed by the less important points.
3. Excerpt:

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A: General Backgrounds 1. In the simplest way possible in one sentence, define communication. (2 pts.) The transfer of information from one person to another. 2. List and succinctly describe the three forms or modes of communication. (9 pts.) Verbal communication-it entails the use of words, either face-to-face or remotely. Nonverbal communication-nonverbal cues such as facial expressions and gestures give insight into a speaker’s word choice. Visual communication-involves the use of maps, signs, drawings or other visuals to pass information. 3. Define rhetoric. (2 pts.) The art of speaking effectively to persuade or impress the listeners. 4. List the seven rhetorical modes. (7 pts.) • Narrative • Definition • Cause and effect • Illustration • Comparison and contrast • Description • classification 5. List the three rules of rational discourse and succinctly explain their importance. (6 pts.) a) The law of identity- it states that a thing is the same as it is. It tells us that something is inseparable from itself. b) The law of non-contradiction- it states that contradictory statements cannot be bot true at the same time. It is important when we have to distinguish between two opposing sides. c) The law of the exclusion of the middle- every statement is either true or it is not. Helps us establish the grounds for judging specific propositions. 6. Define Standard English. What three elements does a proper sentence require? (4 pts.) Standard Eng ...
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