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Csci 303.1w

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Computer Science
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Texas A & M University
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CyberSecurity
Abstract
This paper describes the current trends in jobs in computer science. As a result of technological innovation, various jobs have
come up in the computing field. Some of these jobs include cybersecurity, mobile app development, bioinformatics, and big data
analytics. The criteria and requirements for these jobs have also changed. For example, in a cybesecurity job, a person does not
have to have persued computer science. People from other related courses such as electrical and mechanical engineering also
qualify for cybersecurity positions. Those with the experience of the Linux Opersting system turn out to be more adavantaged
compared to those who are only well-versed with Windows Operating System. In this paper, we are going to keep our focus on
cybersecurity and the current trends which have been noted in the field. In addition, we are going to research on the job
requirements for cybersecurity engineers and anlysts.
Introduction
Computer science and Information Technology have played a key role in ensuring Technological advancement
globally. Today, unlike in the past, as a result of advancement in computer knowledge, various career choices have
been created within the computer science field. For example, in android-application development, Kotlin-developers
have been ‘born’ since Kotlin overtook java. Again, owing to the multiple information systems being developed,
there has been the need for cybersecurity experts such as white-hat hackers to foresee and prevent attacks from
armatures or well-versed black and grey-hat hackers. Generally, as a result of improvement in computing, new
careers have been developed. Other common careers that have been created lately in the computer science field
include big data analytics, bioinformatics, and cybersecurity, among others. In this paper, we are going to focus on
cybersecurity experts and their role in computer science.
The issue of cybersecurity has been a menace for such a long time. Some years ago, probably a decade or two after
the development of the internet, businesses used to suffer huge losses from cyberattacks. Some of the ways through
which attackers would carry out their attacks included phishing practices, hacking, denial-of-service attacks,
spamming, spoofing, and man-in-the-middle attacks, among others. However, with time, it became evident that
there was a need for ethical hackers and other like-minded individuals to curb unethical practices in the field. This
gave birth to cybersecurity engineers and the cybersecurity career in general. Since the establishment of this career,
there have been numerous improvements that require the professionals to keep up with if they intend to remain
relevant to the career. For example, within networking, there is the concept of the internet of things, which requires
the cybersecurity experts to identify the technology and establish ways through which the attackers may penetrate
into systems via this technology.
Literature Review
Cybersecurity has been defined as a practice of protecting systems, programs, and networks from digital attacks [1].
According to Craigen D et al., as long as computer systems, programs and networks exist, there will always be
efforts by attackers to access, change, or destroy sensitive information for their own benefits [2]. This, therefore,
calls for preventive measures against such attacks. However, implementing cybersecurity measures is particularly
challenging today since there are more end devices compared to people. In addition, since knowledge is being
distributed everywhere today via the internet, attackers have become more innovative to the point of challenging
cybersecurity experts.
According to a report by the Herjavec Group, cybersecurity job openings by 2021 are expected to be around a
3.5million [3]. This basically translates to the expected number of cybersecurity attacks by 2021. The Herjavec
group also notes that by 2021, cybercrime will be more than triple the number of job openings. This partially reflects
the current trend where the number of cyberattacks surpasses that of job openings. William Crumpler and James
Lewis, in their book, The cybersecurity Workforce group, also note that 82 percent of employers report a shortage of

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cybersecurity skills each year [4]. Students pursuing cybersecurity career have also been identified to lack practical
skills, which is an important qualification in the career. According to William Crumpler and James Lewis, the
current U.S system of cybersecurity training and education is failing to prepare students for roles like secure system
design, tool development, and penetration testing.
Looking at the roles expected from each cybersecurity student, one thing is evident. Cybersecurity threats rarely
change. However, attackers improve their methods of operation every time, and the professionals should, therefore,
be ahead in terms of information and skill always. Currently, threats countered by cyber-security are three folds. The
three include cybercrime, cyber-attacks, and cyberterrorism [5]. Cybercrime refers to the crime committed by either
an individual or a group of individuals targeting computer systems for financial gain or to cause disruption. On the
other hand, cyber-attacks primarily involve politically motivated information gathering. Finally, cyberterrorism is
usually intended to undermine electronic systems and cause fear.
Under the three folds of cybersecurity threats, we have other sub-folds, including malware, SQL injection, Phishing,
Man-in-the-middle attacks, and Denial-of-service attacks. To counter each of these attacks, a unique skill is required
for each. For example, according to Markus Jakobsson and Steven Myers, the countermeasures of phishing include
establishing proper anti-spy and firewall settings in a system and ensuring regular updates of programs [6].
Rebecca Vogel, in her book, "Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap," adds weight to the idea that there is a
worldwide gap in the skills needed for the cybersecurity workforce. According to Regina Vogel, the skill gap that
exists in the cybersecurity workforce has an equal implication for the national security sector, both public and
private [7]. In her book, Rebecca Vogel also notes that a growth of 36.5 percent is expected by 2021 in the
cybersecurity career.
To emphasize the importance of skills, Kenneth Knapp et al. describes the value of professional certification in
creating reputable professionals. Having noted that skill is what lacks among students who have graduated from the
cybersecurity course, Knapp et al. advices institutes of higher learning to develop a program that guides, improves,
and maintains relevance in the current world [8]. Cybersecurity professionals should, therefore, hone their skills
continually to keep up with the shifts in the threat landscape.
Main Section
Cybersecurity engineering is on demand. Prospective cybersecurity engineers are required to hold a bachelor's
degree in computer science, electrical engineering, or mechanical engineering. This is the minimum requirement for
any prospective cybersecurity engineer. In addition, it is desired that the person holds a master's in computer
science, computer information systems, electrical engineering, or mechanical engineering. Certifications are also
vital in this career. For example, security and CISSP certifications are vital, and an added advantage. Using keyword
search, important data is grasped regarding current cybersecurity jobs.
As per Gryphon Technologies requirements, a prospective cybersecurity engineer should have the following
requirements [9]:
1. Four years of technical engineering experience
2. Experience with automated cybersecurity tools including ACAS and SCAP
3. Experience documenting cyber vulnerabilities in a software codebase
4. Experience in documenting cyber vulnerabilities in a Windows operating system
5. Familiar with the Risk Management Framework (RMF)
6. Experience with implementing an automated software patching a must
7. Experience developing recommendations to enhance the cyber posture of systems
8. Experience with cybersecurity development practices
9. Experience designing and implementing solutions based on stakeholder requirements
10. Experience developing software functionality through an Agile or Waterfall engineering process from the
requirement to deployment
11. Strong experience with configuration management tools: GIT, SVN, ClearCase
12. Experience reporting system and software issues
13. Experience in the C++ programming language
14. Experience with windows group policy settings (standalone, not domain)
15. Experience working as part of an engineering project team

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[1]Given Name Surname dept. name of organization (of Affiliation) City, Country Email address or ORCID CyberSecurity Abstract This paper describes the current trends in jobs in computer science. As a result of technological innovation, various jobs have come up in the computing field. Some of these jobs include cybersecurity, mobile app development, bioinformatics, and big data analytics. The criteria and requirements for these jobs have also changed. For example, in a cybesecurity job, a person does not have to have persued computer science. People from other related courses such as electrical and mechanical engineering also qualify for cybersecurity positions. Those with the experience of the Linux Opersting system turn out to be more adavantaged compared to those who are only well-versed with Windows Operating System. In this paper, we are going to keep our focus on cybersecurity and the current trends which have been noted in the field. In addition, we are going to research on the job requirements for cybersecurity engineers and anlysts. Introduction Computer science and Information Technology have played a key role in ensuring Technological advancement globally. Today, unlike in the past, as a result of advancement in computer knowledge, various career choices have been created within the computer science field. For example, in android-application development, Kotlin-developers have been ‘born’ since Kotlin overtook java. Again, owing to the multiple information sy ...
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