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Thin Layer Chromatography

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Subject
Chemistry
School
University of Nevada Las Vegas
Type
Homework
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NAME: (your name)
CHEM 241L
SECTION #: (your section #)
UNLV 2020 Summer Session II
THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPH (TLC)
PURPOSE
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the retardation factor of Naphthalene, 9-
flourenone, Benzophenone, 4-methoxyacetophenone, fluorene and 4-nitroaniline. Also,
this aims to relate retardation factor with the polarity of the compound.
PROCEDURE
TLC samples were prepared by placing small amounts of Naphthalene, 9-flourenone,
Benzophenone, 4-methoxyacetophenone, fluorene and 4-nitroaniline in separate test
tubes. The test tubes were then labeled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, respectively. One milliliter of
ethyl acetate was added to each test tube to dissolved the compounds. The test tubes
were then shaken by hand to ensure that the solids are totally dissolved.
TLC plate was prepared by cutting the whole plate into two. The TLC plate consist of a
silica gel coating on one face and plastic on the other. Origin and a top line (both are
horizontal lines) were draw on the resulting plate (silica gel face) using a pencil and a
ruler. The origin was drawn about 5 mm from the bottom of the plate while the top line is
drawn approximately 5 mm from the top of the plate. Equally spaced vertical spot lines
were then drawn to the origin, 3 in each plate. Also, labels 1, 2, 3 and 4, 5, 6 were written
above the top lines, collinear with the spot lines, of the two plates, respectively.
UV lamp were then placed on the left side near the two plates. The plates were originally
white in color but upon exposure to UV light it becomes light green due to the fluorescent
material in the plate. Samples were then spotted on the spot lines using a capillary tube.
After the spotting process, the leftover sample in the capillary tube were removed by
dipping the capillary tube in pure ethyl acetate. The liquid is drained by taping the tube in
a paper towel multiple times.
Eluent (10% ethyl acetate and 90% hexane) was prepared by pouring 9 mL of hexane in
a 10-mL graduated cylinder followed by 1 mL of ethyl acetate. The solution is well mixed
in a 50-mL Erlenmeyer flask then covered by a watch glass to prevent evaporation of the

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eluent. The eluent was then pipetted to two 50-mL beaker, which served as the developing
chamber, with a level that will not exceed the origin of the plates. The TLC plates were
placed in the developing chamber using a tweezer and the top of the beaker were covered
by watch glasses. The plates were withdrawn from the chamber after the eluent reaches
the top line.
Spots on the plates were visualized by using a UV lamp. The spots were marked by
drawing a dot on the center of each spot using a pencil. Solvent front (S
f
) was determined
by measuring the distance between the origin and the top line. Compound fronts (C
f
) were
then determined by measuring the distance between the origin and the center of the spots.
Data were then recorded in the data table. The retardation factor (R
f
) was calculated
based on the formula
𝑅
𝑓
=
distance spot travels (C
f
)
distance solvent travels (S
f
)
DATA/RESULTS
From the experiment, the following are the data:
COMPOUNDS
C
f
(mm)
S
f
(mm)
R
f
Naphthalene
19
25
0.76
O
9-Fluorenone
10
25
0.40
O
Benzophenone
13
25
0.52

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NAME: (your name) CHEM 241L SECTION #: (your section #) UNLV 2020 Summer Session II THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPH (TLC) PURPOSE The purpose of this experiment is to determine the retardation factor of Naphthalene, 9flourenone, Benzophenone, 4-methoxyacetophenone, fluorene and 4-nitroaniline. Also, this aims to relate retardation factor with the polarity of the compound. PROCEDURE TLC samples were prepared by placing small amounts of Naphthalene, 9-flourenone, Benzophenone, 4-methoxyacetophenone, fluorene and 4-nitroaniline in separate test tubes. The test tubes were then labeled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, respectively. One milliliter of ethyl acetate was added to each test tube to dissolved the compounds. The test tubes were then shaken by hand to ensure that the solids are totally dissolved. TLC plate was prepared by cutting the whole plate into two. The TLC plate consist of a silica gel coating on one face and plastic on the other. Origin and a top line (both are horizontal lines) were draw on the resulting plate (silica gel face) using a pencil and a ruler. The origin was drawn about 5 mm from the bottom of the plate while the top line is drawn approximately 5 mm from the top of the pla ...
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