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APPLICATIONS OF CHEMISTRY

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king of chemistry
by MagneD |
A Level Science Applications Support Booklet: Chemistry
A Level Science Applications Support Booklet: Chemistry
Contents
INTRODUCTION 1
1 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
.............................................................................................................3 1.1
Introduction.............................................................................................................................3
Water Life’s matrix..........................................................................................................3
Importance of hydrogen bonding to life .............................................................................5
Condensation polymerisation ............................................................................................5
Shaping up ........................................................................................................................6 1.2
Protein chemistry....................................................................................................................6 a)
Proteins - the workhorses of life ........................................................................................6 b)
Amino acids - the building blocks of proteins ....................................................................8
Common features of amino acids...............................................................................8 The
ionisation of amino acids ...................................................................................10 c) Structure -
the key to protein function .............................................................................11 Condensation
polymerisation of amino acids ...........................................................11 Levels of protein
structure ........................................................................................12 The primary structure of
proteins..............................................................................12 The secondary structure of proteins
.........................................................................13 Protein tertiary structure
...........................................................................................15 Haemoglobin the molecular
‘breathing machine’...................................................17 summary and required knowledge
.........................................................................................18 d) Enzymes Nature’s catalysts
.........................................................................................19 Catalytic
efficiency....................................................................................................19 Shapely molecules
...................................................................................................20 The ‘lock and key’ model
..........................................................................................20 Competitive inhibition of enzyme
activity..................................................................22 Non-competitive inhibition of enzymes
.....................................................................23 Factors affecting enzyme activity
.............................................................................25 The effect of temperature
.........................................................................................25 The effect of pH changes
.........................................................................................26 Chemical

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denaturation..............................................................................................27 Prosthetic groups
and coenzymes ‘little helpers’...................................................28 Ion channels in biological
membranes .....................................................................29 summary and required knowledge
.........................................................................................30 1.3 Genetic information
..............................................................................................................31 a) DNA the source of
heredity ..........................................................................................31 b) The structure of
DNA.......................................................................................................33 The DNA double
helix...............................................................................................34 c) The structure of
RNA.......................................................................................................35 d) Gene expression
.............................................................................................................37 The role of DNA
chains of information...................................................................37 Replication the biological
assembly of new DNA ..................................................38 Semi-conservative
replication...................................................................................39 Expressing the message the
role of RNA..............................................................41 Delivering the message transcription
....................................................................41 Protein synthesis translating the message
............................................................42 The genetic code
......................................................................................................42 Translating the message
..........................................................................................43 e) Mutations
.........................................................................................................................43 Sickle cell
anaemia...................................................................................................44 Cystic Fibrosis
..........................................................................................................44 © University of Cambridge
International Examinations 2010

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king of chemistry by MagneD | A Level Science Applications Support Booklet: Chemistry A Level Science Applications Support Booklet: Chemistry Contents INTRODUCTION 1 1 – THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE .............................................................................................................3 1.1 – Introduction.............................................................................................................................3 Water – Life’s matrix..........................................................................................................3 Importance of hydrogen bonding to life .............................................................................5 Condensation polymerisation ............................................................................................5 Shaping up ........................................................................................................................6 1.2 – Protein chemistry....................................................................................................................6 a) Proteins - the workhorses of life ........................................................................................6 b) Amino acids - the building blocks of proteins ....................................................................8 Common features of amino acids...............................................................................8 The ionisation of amino acids ....... ...
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