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Gravity & Newton 1 4_5_NewtonGravity.key - April 18, 2018 Isaac Newton (1643 - 1727) • Building on the results of Galileo and Kepler • Adding physics interpretations to the mathematical descriptions of astronomy by Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler Major achievements: 1. Invented Calculus as a necessary tool to solve mathematical problems related to motion 2. Discovered the three laws of motion 3. Discovered the universal law of mutual gravitation 2 4_5_NewtonGravity.key - April 18, 2018 Velocity and Acceleration Definitions: Speed is how fast something is moving. a Velocity is a speed with direction. Acceleration is a change in velocity with time. v Different cases of acceleration: 1. Acceleration in the conventional sense (i.e. increasing speed) 2. Deceleration (i.e. decreasing speed) 3. Change of the direction of motion (e.g., in circular motion) 3 4_5_NewtonGravity.key - April 18, 2018 Acceleration of Gravity Iron ball Wood ball The acceleration of gravity is independent of the mass of the falling object! Difficult to verify on Earth because of air resistance; but astronauts could verify it easily on the moon 4 4_5_NewtonGravity.key - April 18, 2018 Newton’s Laws of Motion (1) 1. A body continues at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by some net force. An astronaut floating in space will continue to float forever in a straight line unless some external force is accelerating him/her. 5 4_5_NewtonGravity.key - April 18, ...
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