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Democracy in scandinavia

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Democracy in Scandinavia
Chapter 2 Comments
Finland
A strong preferential list voting system, since 1958
Introduction of a preferential voting system lead to emergence of mass parties
in the country. The system was a measure of suspicion towards parties, particularly
right-wing
Personal element provided through candidate voting (citizens had 3 options:
support the list, alter ordering of candidates or constitute a list of their own)
There has never been an electoral threshold to qualify for parliamentary
representation
Over the last half century give precedence to a political party over an
individual candidate
However, it is impossible in Finland simply to vote for a party and its
candidates, it is also mandatory to express a preference of a candidate.
A narrow majority of women voted for female candidates, while 74% of men
voted for male candidates.
Critics of the Finnish system
Personalities known for other things than their political merits, were
advantaged by preferential voting
There is a risk that external financial interests could affect the outcome of the
election by pouring miney into individual campaigns
The system could lead to unhealthy conflicts between candidates of the same
party list
Denmark and Sweden
Weak preferential list voting systems since 1920
Voting for a candidate
70% of candidate voting in 1945 and 39% in 1966, 49% again in 1988
Increased competition between candidates of the same party
In Denmark there are 3 main ways of arranging candidates at parliamentary
elections.
First,
parties may present a party list of candidates. The impact of personal
voting is least and they are relatively uncommon.
Second,
a party may present voters
with an "electoral district list". Becomes less common.
Third
, co-ordinated
constituency list. Voters place a cross either against a party or a candidate.

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Democracy in Scandinavia Chapter 2 Comments Finland A strong preferential list voting system, since 1958 Introduction of a preferential voting system lead to emergence of mass parties in the country. The system was a measure of suspicion towards parties, particularly right-wing Personal element provided through candidate voting (citizens had 3 options: support the list, alter ordering of candidates or constitute a list of their own) There has never been an electoral threshold to qualify for parliamentary representation Over the last half century give precedence to a political party over an ind ...
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