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Florida international univesrity mhs6802 midterm review

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MHS 6802
PERSONALITY THEORIES
Psychoanalytic theory: early psychosexual and psychosocial development…healthy personality
development is based on successful resolution of both psychosexual and psychosocial issues at the
appropriate stages throughout the lifespan. Psychopathology is the result of failing to meet some critical
developmental task or becoming fixated at some early level of development.
-Key figures/theorists:
o Original key figure: Sigmund Freud, father of psychoanalysis, 4 psychosexual stages
o Ego psychologist: Erik Erikson, 8 stages of psychosocial development
-Therapeutic process
o GOAL= make the unconscious conscious and strengthen the ego so behavior is
based on reality and less on instinctual cravings or irrational guilt.
o aimed at increasing awareness, fostering insights into the client’s behavior, and
understanding the meanings of symptoms
>Blank-screen approach: therapist avoids self-disclosure and maintains neutrality
>Blank screen fosters transference
>Feelings and memories associated with self-understanding must happen
-Role of therapist & client
Engagement between two people; facilitate healing of client by modeling behavior
Focus is on resistances that occur in the therapeutic process, on interpretation of a client’s
life patterns, and on working through transference feelings.
Modern psychoanalytic= shift to here and now rather than anonymous therapist
-Techniques
Major techniques of traditional psychoanalysis include maintaining the analytic framework, free
association, interpretation, dream analysis, analysis of resistance, and analysis of transference.
Maintaining the Analytic Framework
Therapist uses a range of procedural and stylistic factors (e.g. analysts’ relative
anonymity, consistency of meetings
Analysis of Resistance
Therapist helps clients become aware of reasons for their resistance so they can deal with
them
Analysis of Transference
Therapist uses this to elucidate client’s intrapsychic life
Free Association
Clients reports immediately w/o censoring any feelings or thoughts
Interpretation
Therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed
Dream analysis
Therapist uses the “royal road to the unconscious” to bring conscious material to light
Latent content: consists of hidden, symbolic, and unconscious motives, wishes, and
fears
Manifest content: the dream as it appears to the dreamer
Dream work: the process by which the latent content of a dream is transformed into
the less threatening manifest content

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Therapist’s task is to uncover disguised meanings by studying the symbols in the
manifest content of the dream
Interpreting meaning of dream elements helps clients unlock the repression that has kept
the material from consciousness and relate new insight to their present struggles
-Multicultural aspect
STRENGTH: considers possible external sources of clients’ problems (e.g. oppressive
environment is accounted for in this form of therapy)
LIMITS:
o Insight is emphasized but action methods are ignored
o Model is based on the study of neurotic individuals
o Involves lengthy training for the therapist
o Great amount of time and $$$ for clients
-Application
o Brief psychodynamic therapy uses these psychodynamic concepts: impact of stages of
development, the unconscious and resistance, the usefulness of interpretation, stressing
the working alliance, and the reenactment of past emotional issues in relationship to the
therapist.
o Application to Group Counseling-psychodynamically oriented group therapy
o Same concepts used as brief therapy are used
o Group work gives emphasis to transference concept; group becomes a microcosm
of members everyday lives
o Projections onto the leader and members are client unresolved conflicts that are
identified explored and worked in group
Object Relations Theory: A newer version of psychoanalytic thinking, which focuses on predictable
developmental sequences in which early experiences of self-shift in relation to an expanding
awareness of others. It holds that individuals go through phases of autism, normal symbiosis, and
separation and individuation, culminating in a state of integration. (GLOSSARY DEFINITION)
- Summary= Emphasizes attachment and separation
o Emphasize how our relationships with other people are affected by the way we have
internalized our experiences of others and set up representations of others within
ourselves.
o Rather than being individuals with separate identities, others are perceived by an infant as
objects for gratifying needs.
-Key figures/theorists
o Object relations: Margaret Mahler.
Adlerian theory
- Key figures/theorists
o Alfred Adler stresses assuming responsibility, creating destiny, finding meanings and
goals
- Therapeutic process
o GOAL= help clients identify and change their mistaken beliefs about, self,
others, and life and thus to participate more fully in a social world
o Helps individuals become aware of their patterns and make some basic changes in
their style of living, which lead to changes in the way they feel and behave.

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MHS 6802 PERSONALITY THEORIES Psychoanalytic theory: early psychosexual and psychosocial development…healthy personality development is based on successful resolution of both psychosexual and psychosocial issues at the appropriate stages throughout the lifespan. Psychopathology is the result of failing to meet some critical developmental task or becoming fixated at some early level of development. -Key figures/theorists: o Original key figure: Sigmund Freud, father of psychoanalysis, 4 psychosexual stages o Ego psychologist: Erik Erikson, 8 stages of psychosocial development -Therapeutic process o GOAL= make the unconscious conscious and strengthen the ego so behavior is based on reality and less on instinctual cravings or irrational guilt. o aimed at increasing awareness, fostering insights into the client’s behavior, and understanding the meanings of symptoms >Blank-screen approach: therapist avoids self-disclosure and maintains neutrality >Blank screen fosters transference >Feelings and memories associated with self-understanding must happen -Role of therapist & client Engagement between two people; facilitate healing of client by modeling behavior Focus is on resistances that occur in the therapeutic process, on interpretation of a client’s life patterns, and on working through transference feelings. Modern psychoanalytic= shift to here and now rather than anonymous therapist -Techniques Major techniques of traditional psychoanalysis include maintaining the analytic ...
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