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Florida international university sop3004 study guide

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Chapter 1
Social cognition - is the way that an individual understands his or her own social world
five perspectives in social psychology (see Fig. 1.1 for a summary)
The social cognition perspective focuses on how we perceive, remember, and interpret events
and people.
The evolutionary perspective is a reinvigorated view of humans as a species of animal and of
social behavior as a consequence of evolutionary adaptations.
The cultural perspective underscores the effect of culture on thinking and behavior.
The existential perspective focuses on basic human concerns such as mortality, meaning, and
connection.
The neuroscience perspective focuses on understanding the neural systems that underlie
social processes.
four core assumptions of social psychology
Behavior is
determined by the
combined influence
of specific aspects
of the person and
the situation.
Virtually all human
thoughts, feelings, and
actions involve other
people and are social
in nature.
To understand
behavior, we
must learn
how people
think about
themselves
and their
social world.
The scientific method offers the
best route to accurately
understanding social behavior.
humans as cognitive misers - A term that conveys the human tendency to avoid expending
effort and cognitive resources when thinking and to prefer seizing on quick and easy answers to
questions.
Dispositions - ways of thinking, consistent preferences, and behavioral tendencies that influence
us across varying situations and over time.

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correlational method - whereby two or more preexisting characteristics (the variables) of a
group of individuals are measured and compared to determine whether and/or to what extent they
are associated.
direction and strength of a correlation (be able to recognize in examples) - The correlation
coefficient is a measure of the relationship between two variables. The sign, positive (+) or
negative (), tells us the direction of the relationship. A positive correlation occurs when a high
level of one variable tends to be accompanied by a high level of another variable. A negative
correlation exists when a high level of one variable is accompanied by a low level of the other
variable. The numerical value tells us the strength of the relationship. The strength of a
correlation refers to how closely associated the two variables are, how much knowing a person’s
standing on one variable tells us about, or enables us to predict, the person’s standing on the
other variable.
reverse causality -Correlations tell us nothing about which of two interrelated variables is the
cause and which is the effect.
third-variable problem - The two variables are correlated, but it is still possible that neither
exerts a causal influence on the other. It may be that some third variable for example, a
general tendency to be self-conscious and anxiety prone is responsible for the correlation
found between stigma consciousness and performance.
longitudinal studies - two variables are measured at multiple points in time. By examining
correlations between one variable at time 1 and another variable at time 2, such studies can make
us more confident about likely causal order.
experimental method - An experiment is a study in which the researcher takes active control
and manipulates one variable
independent/dependent variable - The independent variable is manipulated because it is being
investigated as the possible cause. The dependent variable is the one that is then measured to
assess the effect.
random assignment - in which participants are assigned to conditions in such a way that each
person has an equal chance of being in either condition
field research - This type of research occurs outside the laboratory, such as in schools, office
buildings, medical clinics, football games, or even in shopping malls or on street corners.
quasi-experimental design - A type of research in which groups of participants are compared
on some dependent variable, but for practical or ethical reasons, the groups are not formed on the
basis of random assignment.

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Chapter 1 Social cognition - is the way that an individual understands his or her own social world five perspectives in social psychology (see Fig. 1.1 for a summary) The social cognition perspective focuses on how we perceive, remember, and interpret events and people. The evolutionary perspective is a reinvigorated view of humans as a species of animal and of social behavior as a consequence of evolutionary adaptations. The cultural perspective underscores the effect of culture on thinking and behavior. The existential perspective focuses on basic human concerns such as mortality, meaning, and connection. The neuroscience perspective focuses on understanding the neural systems that underlie social processes. four core assumptions of social psychology Behavior is determined by the combined influence of specific aspects of the person and the situation. Virtually all human thoughts, feelings, and actions involve other people and are social in nature. To understand behavior, we must learn how people think about themselves and their social world. The scientific method offers the best route to accurately understanding social behavior. humans as cognitive misers - A term that conveys the human tendency to avoid expending effort and cognitive resources when thinking and to prefer seizing on quick and easy answers to questions. Dispositions - ways of thinking, consistent preferences, and behavioral tendencies that influence us across varying situations and over time. correla ...
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