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Divided Cities Poli Sci 157

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Running head: INTERNATIONAL DIVIDED CITIES POLI SCI 157 1
International Divided Cities Poli Sci 157
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INTERNATIONAL DIVIDED CITIES POLI SCI 157 2
Intermittent conflicts have been in existence in Africa for some time now and the nature,
intensity and magnitude of those conflicts is independent on the circumstances underpinning the
conflict as well as the physical environment where they take place (Christmann, 2020). The
dynamics, nature as well as the root cause of conflicts more especially those in urban centres
seem to be determined by different geographical features, some social, economic and others are
purely cultural as a result of the governance systems in place and some spiraling from the point
of colonization.
There is intense inter-communal conflict that is alarming in a number of cities not only in
Africa but globally that is a reflection ethnic differences. It has been observed that in situations
where we have issues of conflicts in urban centres, there is an issue of ethnic identity that hides
under the banner of nationalistic claims of sovereignty (Smidt, 2020). This sometimes fuels the
issue group rights, which later on calls for territorial separation or autonomy and when
individuals or a group is being forced to do that, this gives birth to conflict. Sometimes this can
be intense like what has been witnessed in Johannesburg where one group claims that the city is
within their territory and that group seeks a proportionate share of power or resources in an urban
centre based on autonomy or independence.
Originally Johannesburg was inhabited by the San people who depended on hunting and
gathering and later on European pastoralists settled in because of the mining business (Beck,
1999). Later on due to territorial conflicts, it gave birth to the apartheid as the San who are Bantu
descendants felt that they should control the revenues and even decision making in the town. The
whites had also invested in mining and agriculture and up to date the issue of territory within
Johannesburg has been a thorn in the flesh on who should be given territorial powers to the town.
The reading book documents one of the interviews the author had with one of the apartheid
organizers, who said that the group was honest and they were looking for opportunities for the
blacks (Bollens, 2012). The blacks had been driven away by the whites from land that was
originally theirs to nowhere.
The political situation in South Africa is built around divisions between blacks and
whites. There is a faction that is calling itself Ubuntu and this particular faction is pro policies
that seem to favour the blacks who are majority in Johannesburg. It has been noted that in

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Running head: INTERNATIONAL DIVIDED CITIES POLI SCI 157 International Divided Cities Poli Sci 157 Student’s Name Institution 1 INTERNATIONAL DIVIDED CITIES POLI SCI 157 2 Intermittent conflicts have been in existence in Africa for some time now and the nature, intensity and magnitude of those conflicts is independent on the circumstances underpinning the conflict as well as the physical environment where they take place (Christmann, 2020). The dynamics, nature as well as the root cause of conflicts more especially those in urban centres seem to be determined by different geographical features, some social, economic and others are purely cultural as a result of the governance systems in place and some spiraling from the point of colonization. There is intense inter-communal conflict that is alarming in a number of cities not only in Africa but globally that is a reflection ethnic differences. It has been observed that in situations where we have issues of conflicts in urban centres, there is an issue of ethnic identity that hides under the banner of nationalistic claims of sovereignty (Smidt, 2020). This sometimes fuels the issue group rights, which later on calls for territorial separation or autonomy and when individuals or a group is being forced to do that, this gives birth to conflict. Sometimes this can be intense like what has been witnessed in Johannesburg where one group claims that the city is within their territory and that group seeks a proportionate share ...
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